Give us a call with your vehicle specifications and requirements. We can design a custom dc motor to suite your needs. Our current design capabilities are: 1 to 10 HP (horse power) continuous duty rating - up to 25 HP (18.5 kW) Peak, Frame O. D. - 6.69 inch, Voltage - 12 volts, 24 volts, 36 volts, 48 volts up to 72 volts (higher if required). Complete range of wound field construction (series or separately excited). Meets all Class H temperature ratings. Experienced in the material handling, utility vehicle, NEV, aerial lift, airport support vehicle, golf cart and several other electric vehicle markets.
If you would like to see our entire selection of electric golf cart motors, this chart gives the basic performance characteristics of most of our motors, on one simple page. We have High performance electric motors. E-Z-GO motors, Club Car motors, Yamaha motors, Melex motors for most golf cart applications. We also have replacement motors with the same performance characteristics as the stock motor. See how the golf cart motor you have, compares to any of our heavy duty electric golf cart motors.
We now have a full range of heavy duty programmableseries & regen controllers for most electric golf carts and many other electric vehicles. We also have non-programmable golf cart controllers as an economical alternative. Upgrade your golf cart controller to get more torque out of any vehicle. We offer 12 volt, 36 volt, 48 volt and 72 voltgolf cart controllers, with current outputs of 300 amp, 400 amp, 500 amp & 650 amp for series vehicles, 300 amp, 400 amp & 600 amp for separately excited vehicles. Our golf car controllers cover almost any series golf cart controller upgrade and many regenerative braking applications (EZ-GO - DCS & PDS controllers & Club Car - IQ & Precedent, PD Plus & Yamaha G-19controllers). We are currently expanding our regen golf car controller product line to include Yamaha: G22 models. We have E-Z-GO controllers, Club Car controllers, Yamaha controllers. Upgrade your golf cart speed controller today!
We offer the widest range of DC Motors and Controllers in the World for the Golf Cart Market. With so many different available combinations, this tool will help assure that you get the correct dc motor, controller or combination for your application. Looking for a High Speed motor or High Torque motor? We have High Speed motor and High Torque motor options for E-Z-GO, Club Car, Yamaha, Melex and most other vehicles. This guide will lead you to the dc motor and/or controller that will meet your heavy duty performance needs. Match you current D&D Club Car electric motor with a high performance electric motor controller. Look for the best series controller to go with your EZ-GO electric motor. Upgrade your Yamaha controller and/or motor for a high performance golf cart conversion. The electric motor and controller combinations for series and regen golf carts are endless.
Look here for new product releases. D&D Motors Systems is currently the only electric motor manufacturer with True Regen High Speed and High Torquereplacement motors and motor / controller combos for E-Z-GO: DCS & PDS vehicles.
D&D Motor Systems is the premier DC motor manufacturer in the U.S. for small to medium light-weight electric vehicle (EV) conversions. In addition we offer a complete line of U.S. made speed controllers to go with our high performance EV motors. Kick the oil habit now. It's a lot more practical than you think. This isn't a dream of the future. With a little effort, electric vehicles (EVs) are here today! At a cost you can afford! Save money now. Build your own Electric Car conversion.
Get more performance out of your NEV's. D&D Motor Systems is the premier US made neighborhood electric vehicle motor manufacturer. We make many replacement NEV motors that include the Ford think motor, GEM motor, pathway motors, Dynasty motor, E-ride motor, along with many more. Our ford think motor has had years of flawless field time in the ford think golf cart. In addition, our 7.5 HP GEM motor is well known for its excellent performance in the gem electric car market over the last 10 plus years. Click here for more details. Always ask for the BLUE motor!
This section helps our customers educate themselves in the area of using our electric dc motors and controllers. Within this section you will find technical information about: Sepearately Excited dc motors, Series dc motor, 48 volt golf cart motors, 36 volt golf car motors, hi torque E-Z-GO motor, hi speed Club Car motor, Sepex motors, Regen motors, dc motors, electric vehicle conversions, lifted golf cart motors, golf cart 4wd conversions, heavy duty golf cart motor installations, heavy duty golf car controller upgrades, golf car speed controller installation, anything to do with dc electric motors. You'll also find information on: high performance electric motor upgrades, high performance golf cart conversions, getting more speed from your golf car motor, getting more torque from your golf car controller. This is intended to be a useful guide for all things related to: High Speed electric motors, High Torque electric motors and electric motor controllers, golf cart controller, golf cart speed control, golf cart speed controller.
D&D Motor Systems, Inc. warrants each of its dc motors and controllers to be free of defects related to workmanship or material. DC Motors are warranted for a period of one-year and controllers are warranted for a period of two-years, both from their respective D&D Motor System ship dates. If the motor and/or controller has received normal use and service. Each motor and/or controller returned must be accompanied with a description of the problem, the part number and the serial number. For complete warranty information, click the link above.
Here you will find links to many golf car related products. We have links to golf cart parts. If you are looking for a golf cart lift kit, golf cart battery chargers, golf car batteries and golf cart accessories. Find the Club Car accessories, E-Z-GO accessories or Yamaha golf cart accessories for your high performance golf cart. Are you looking for electric car conversion products? We have links to sites which provide information and parts for electric vehicle coversions. We have links to golf carts parts such as: tires, F&R switches (forward and reverse switches), golf cart axles and golf cart enclosures. Links to electric motor golf carts. We have links to suppiers of golf cart controller accessories such as F&R switches and many other golf cart parts.
We also sell rebuilt golf car motors and controllers as they become available. The motors come with our standard 1 year warranty (same as a new dc motor). The performance is identical to a new dc motor. The only difference is the price! Please call and check availability, our inventory on these rebuilt dc motors is limited. Experienced in the material handling, utility vehicle, NEV, aerial lift, airport support vehicle, golf cart and several other electric vehicle markets. We do not rebuild GE dc motors or Advanced Motors & Drives (Advanced DC Motors) dc motors. We often carry an inventory of used golf cart motors. Used golf car motors such as: club car motor, ez-go golf cart motor. Our used golf cart motors come with a factory warranty and perform the same as a new motor.
Short-haul flights produce over 40% of aviation emissions. With Zunum hybrid electric aircraft motors (and then later all electric aircraft, Zunum believes these will be largely eliminated within twenty years. Our aircraft are “hybrid-to-electrics” that sip fuel only when they have to, will use even less over time as batteries upgrade, and will one day go completely without — so that flying will be kind to the Earth.
Zunum Aero is developing 10- to 50-seat aircraft that co-founder and CEO Ashish Kumar hopes will bring “a new golden era” of fast and affordable electric air travel.
Zunum claims that its proposed aircraft will cut airfares by 40 and 80 percent, curb carbon emissions by 80 percent and cut community noise by 75 percent, opening up the possibility of around-the-clock flights at smaller airports.
Zunum planes should be in production by the early 2020s.
They expect to have all electric planes in the 2030s, as electric battery and electric aircraft motor technology improves.
Heathrow set to try electric vehicles By: Fleet News
Filed Under: Airport Support Vehicles -
This week sees the launch of a new trial of electric vehicles at Heathrow to test the viability of electric power-trains used in the highly demanding context of daily airport operations.
Over the next month, a fleet of EVs including the Nissan LEAF, Peugeot iOn, Vauxhall Ampera and the Renault Kangoo Z.E. will be trialled by four organisations and operators at Heathrow.
In addition to Heathrow Airport Limited, who support a potential switch to zero-emission ground based vehicles, British Airways, LSG SkyChefs and Gate Gourmet will be using the electric vehicles within their normal fleet to better understand the suitability or otherwise of EVs for their operations.
Following a detailed assessment of vehicles technologies last year, STS, who manage the Heathrow Clean Vehicles Partnership (CVP) and who are coordinating the new EV trials, have recommended greater use of EVs at Heathrow; not only as a way to reduce life cycle CO2 emissions, but also as part of the NOx emissions reduction strategy across the airport.
As noted by STS director Dr Ben Lane: “Given the current availability of high quality EVs, and need to reduce ground based vehicle emissions, STS are recommending an increase in the use of electric vehicles at Heathrow. In addition to the fleet of almost 700 electric baggage tugs already in use, we see considerable potential for other electric ground support equipment (such as cargo loaders and pushback tractors), as well as the latest on-road electric cars and vans now available in the UK.”
David Vowles, air quality and noise policy manager at Heathrow Airport Limited said: “Ten per cent of airside vehicles are already electric. The Clean Vehicle Partnership facilitates collaborative working amongst Heathrow fleet operators as well as providing advice, guidance and training to reduce emissions. This trial gives fleet operators more experience of using electric vehicles and the opportunity to test their suitability for both airside use and on the road.”
Renaults’ head of Electric Vehicle Programme at Renault UK Andy Heiron also commented: “We were keen to work with CVP members to accelerate the uptake of low emission vehicles and practices for ground use at Heathrow. The EV trial will allows vehicle operators on the airport to experience and better understand the capabilities of Kangoo van ZE in this environment. With around 600 ‘conventional’ Kangoo vans already in service at Heathrow we know this van is well adapted to airport use and are confident that this trial will demonstrate that the ZE version is ideal for the type of duty cycle most operators demand.”
Initial results from the Heathrow EV trials will be presented at the next CVP seminar on 6th December 2012. Information about the trials will also be available on the CVP website.
The rear electric atv motor is visible mounted on the rear axle of the Barefoot Motors electric ATV prototype
Electric all-terrain vehicles may not impress the dune-and trail-riding crowd that rides for recreation, but a few small companies expect organic farmers and vineyard growers will pay a premium to gather cattle and spray vines without the carbon footprint of a gas vehicle.
While automakers are toiling to produce electric cars that will fit the demands of American drivers, Ashland-based Barefoot Motors is on the verge of turning out heavy-duty electric ATVs that can go 50 miles on a charge costing about 90 cents.
"I think a lot of attention is focused on the more glamorous vehicles - the cars," said chief executive Max Scheder-Bieschin.
"But there are lots of other applications where the strength of the electric ATV motors technology can be focused."
Debby Zygielbaum, vineyard manager at organic Robert Sinskey Vineyards in Napa, California, test-drove an early electric ATV Barefoot prototype last year and is eager to be an early adopter when production starts in June. She'd like to haul her spraying equipment without fogging the vines with exhaust fumes, and the electric ATV motors could get free power from the vineyard's solar panels.
"It's becoming feasible where the electric ATVwill actually become a working vehicle to use in the field," she said.
The Barefoot electric ATVs $12,000 (NZ$22,000) price is 50% higher than a heavy-duty gas-powered ATV. But with gas around $2 a gallon and electricity averaging 11.35 cents a kilowatt-hour nationally, the cost evens out over seven years if a farmer drives 5,000 miles a year. It's even more cost-efficient for farms producing their own power from solar panels or manure digesters, and as gas prices go up.
Barefoot is not the first electric ATV coming to market. Bad Boy Buggies in Natchez, Mississippi, has vehicles intended for hunters. Doran Electric Vehicles in Huntington Beach, California, has been selling the Gorilla for years. Zap Electric Vehicles in Santa Rosa, California - where Scheder-Bieschin formerly worked - has a model called the Dude coming out soon.
The high price of Barefoot's model comes from the lithium iron phosphate batteries, the same technology General Motors is putting in the Chevrolet Volt electric car. To keep the price of the Dude around $5,000, Zap had to use lead-acid batteries, which charge slower and have less power. "I think with electric vehicles, it's going to be hard, unless you use very expensive and exotic battery technology, to match the performance and price of gasoline vehicles," said Zap spokesman Alex Campbell.
"Our goal was to simply make an affordable and powerful electric ATV that can satisfy the majority of the needs for ATV owners."
Rick Doran, president of Doran Electric Vehicles, is also skeptical that electric ATVs will replace gas-powered machines. He said his company has sold only a couple hundred at prices around $8,000. Some have gone to underground mining operations and electric utilities where the lack of exhaust and short turning radius are a plus. "Personally, I don't think it's practical yet," he said of the technology.
But Scheder-Bieschin said customers don't have to compromise on performance, as long as their needs fit the vehicle. Farms smaller than 1,000 acres are perfect for using electric ATV motors. The vehicle can work the morning, get recharged at lunch, and go back out in the afternoon, all while staying close to their power source. "Our goal is not necessarily to replace all the million ATVs sold every year," he said.
"There is room for a different electric atv motor technology. There may be people who love their noise, who love their Harleys. But a guy going up and down the rows of a vineyard doesn't like the noise, doesn't like the fumes. If we can get 10,000 of those guys every year we'll be happy." Albert Straus, president of Straus Family Creamery in Marshall, California, is so into sustainability that his milk is sold in glass bottles, he uses methane gas from his cows to produce electricity and hot water, and he drives an electric Toyota RAV4 EV.
"My goal has been to get away from fossil fuels as much as possible," he said. But he finds it hard to justify the expense of buying an electric ATV for gathering cows and fixing fences until there are tax incentives. "I think if we can get the government and society backing this type of technology, it is going to make things happen a lot faster," he said. Barefoot's majority owner, Mary Jo Gresens, said the company plans to start slowly, producing 120 vehicles in the first year and growing with the awareness of global warming. (electric ATV motors)
"Up until now, the ATV market has concentrated on fun, sport kinds of things," said Gresens, a Detroit native who has worked in the automotive industry in the United States and Europe.
"We're not that vehicle."
Barefoot's first electric ATV prototype was a stock utility ATV retrofitted with golf cart batteries and a D&D Motor Systems DC motor. But engineers Dave Mounce and Eli Schless have put the production model together from the ground up, taking care to reduce drag from things like brakes and improve efficiency from the drivetrain and steering, which translates into greater range. The D&D Motor Systems electric ATV motorwas design to maximize power and efficiency while keeping the costs as low as possible. The electric ATV motors are very high quality and completely built in the US!!
"We're talking about a Yugo versus a Ferrari as far as the level of technological difference," Mounce said.
Components will be outsourced - batteries from China, most of the rest from the US - and assembled in Ashland. Barefoot expects to expand its staff from five people to as many as 15 when production gets going.
The company started in Santa Rosa, California, in 2007, and moved to Oregon to be closer to the growing organic farming and vineyard market and take advantage of Gov. Ted Kulongoski's efforts to promote green energy. Current tax credits for electric vehicles apply only to on-road vehicles, but the budget pending in the Legislature would go even further to promote renewable sources of electricity, particularly solar, said Jillian Schoene, a spokeswoman for the governor.
The most serious electric 4x4 UTV/Hunting Buggy available, the HuntVe 4x4lineup is unmatched in power, handling and standard options. The driving experience is unrivalled while able to haul four people with plenty of room for cargo. It is much more technologically advanced than the Stealth 4x4, both the Stealth Nighthawkand Stealth Apachemodels. (electric ATV motors)
Whether you are driving any of our showcased models, the Game Changer™, Dream Season®, Mossy Oaks BioLogic Game Keeper® or “The Original”, its dual electric motors (38 HP combined) does not compromise power and allows you to traverse quietly without sound or smell. Since there are no more electric ATV motorvehicle around, the HUNT VE 4x4is what you need.
American made and the “Official Electric stealth 4x4 UTV of The Lone Star State”, you are assured of unmatched quality and workmanship. The HuntVe’s “Best in Class” ability to handle any type of terrain and conditions makes it a cleaver substitute for a gas powered vehicle. The increased ground clearance and independent coil over front suspension offers superior performance in and around all types of terrain. The HuntVe 4x4 standard equipped 4 wheel braking and programmable motor braking will enable you to travel down the hills just as easily as you traveled up them. With the outstanding handling characteristics of the self adjusting rack and pinion steering combined with unprecedented turning radius you can easily maneuver around in the smallest areas. Not only will you experience more game but with the patented comfort ride system you will also enjoy your hunting experience roaming quietly in and around your property. The HuntVe’s reduced weight contributes to outstanding range of up to 25+ miles and the exclusive computer controlled Rapid Charge system allows you to recharge your premium batteries anytime without concern of over charging and damaging them. With just a little routine maintenance your HuntVe will be worry free for years to come.
For less demanding environments the HuntVe 4x2 and HuntVe 4x2 Sport offer the power of a 20 HP motor with a 600 amp electronic controller and locking rear differential. These models are agile and strong with a utilitarian purpose.
Once again, Stealth 4x4is out of business and the Hunt VE is much more technologically advanced than the Stealth 4x4, both the Stealth Nighthawkand Stealth Apachemodels, then the HUNT VEis the only answer to the avid hunter. If you want a hunting buggy with stealth 4x4 abilities then look to HUNT VE.
Charge into the Outdoors! (Hunting Buggy / Stealth 4x4)
According to Dealer News (www.dealernews.com) Stealth Manufacturing, who build many different stealth electric vehicles over the last 6 years, too include stealth nighthawk and stealth apache, is finished. In an article published on March 12, reporter Holly Wagner reports that Stealth Electric CEO Greg Block had confirmed that the company has gone out of business.
After speaking with the Assignee for the Company, Katie Goodman of Asset Recovery Associates, she told me that stealth 4x4 had two vanloads of assets. She promised to get me a list of those assets within the next week. There is a manufacturer based out of Oregon (who has the capabilities needed by a UTV manufacturer) who has shown some interest in the assets pending what is on the list.
At Stealth 4x4 Northwest, they still have customers calling who want Stealth Manufacturing Equipment and who are very pleased with the design and quality of the Stealth Manufacturing Equipment that they have. With regards to any future stealth electric motor needs, D&D Motor Systems will be servicing the market for the forseeable future. If a follow-on manufacturer did take over the line and start manufacturing again, it seems there is still a market for the equipment.
Once again for anyone needing any stealth 4x4 electric vehicle motors for the stealth nighthawk or stealth appache, just call D&D Motor Systems, Inc at 315-701-0635 or submit your request to them at : http://ddmotorsystems.com/DriveQuote.php?RPG=Menu .
MSD (stealth 4x4, stealth electric, stealth electric 4x4)
Built in Ellicottville, NY the E-FORCE is the first all electric zero-emission, adult sized electric ATV motor driven with adult sized power and torque for extreme terrain. The E-FORCE ’s Torque on Demand electric ATV motor drive system has more than three times the torque of similar sized gas ATVs! MSD
MINNEAPOLIS, MN Polaris Industries Inc. today announced it has donated a PolarisRANGER 800 EFI Mid-Size(using electric ATV motors) and $24,000 to the National Forest Foundation (NFF), a non-profit partner of the U.S. Forest Service. This contribution benefits the Kelly Motorized Trail Implementation initiative and will revitalize and maintain 13 miles of hunting buggy trails in the Coconino National Forest, just outside Flagstaff, Ariz. The donation will support trail construction, improvements and maintenance. Polaris customers and employees alike share a love of riding and respect for nature while using the electric ATV motor. That is why we continue to support projects that provide riders with sustainable, environmentally conscious trails by using the electric ATV motor, said Scott Wine, Polaris CEO. We are therefore proud to partner with the National Forest Foundation, as they consistently champion such efforts. We share their vision to create well-maintained public recreation areas that offer protected access to our public lands, not only so we can enjoy them today, but so future generations will have the same opportunity. By using the electric hunting buggy or electric ATV motor designs we can really help preserve our environment.
The NFF is working in the Coconino National Forest as part of its Treasured Landscapes, Unforgettable Experiences campaign, which aims to restore the habitat, recreation and ecological values of National Forests around the United States and strengthen the connection between Americans and these public lands. In many places, a variety of impacts have left popular trails in need of maintenance and improvement to help sustain the numbers of riding enthusiasts using those trails and visiting the forest throughout the year.
We are proud to work with Polaris on a project that uses electric ATV motors and that can benefit Arizonas forests and its outdoors and hunting buggy enthusiasts, said Jennifer Schoonen, NFF vice president for development. Partnerships like this one help us to ensure quality outdoor experiences as well as healthy public lands.
Work on the project will begin in summer 2013 with input from local trail rider & hunting buggy clubs, as well as assistance from youth conservation crews, who will gain job experience and outdoor skills in the process. MSD
MACON, Georgia (41NBC/WMGT) – Another eco-friendly fleet is hitting the streets in Bibb County, but these vehicles are a lot smaller and are like electric ATV motors.
The Bibb County Green Team and Bibb County Commission unveiled its eight new, electric utility vehicle motors. The Bad Boy electric utility vehicles are a newer, smaller addition to the county vehicles. Like this other fleet, this one is also 100% electric and can be charged at the Bibb County electric charging station. Several county departments will receive one including the recreation department and the property department. This platform is often seen used in a hunting buggy or electric ATV motor.
Macon-Bibb Parks and Recreation manager Ben Hamrick can't wait for his department to get the hunting buggy style new ride. In October, Hamrick was able to test drive one of the electric utility vehicles at the Luke Bryan concert in Macon. With an estimated 20,000 concert goers, Hamrick said the small size allowed officers to access places they wouldn't have been able to get to before.
And now since the Stealth 4x4 company has gone out of business and can no longer provide the Stealth Nighthawkand Stealth Apache, the Bad Boy Buggy is one of the last viable options standing. The other main option is the Hunt VE.
Car Trailer hitches come in all sizes and shapes for a variety of applications. However, hitches are classified as either weight-carrying or weight-distributing. (Car Hauler Parts)
Weight-carrying hitches (such as a bumper pull) are recommended for use when the trailer weight (including cargo) is 3,500 lbs. or less. Make sure the tow vehicle is rated by the manufacturer to accommodate that load. The tongue weight is carried directly on the rear of the tow vehicle and on the hitch. You can find your vehicle's tow rating online atwww.campinglife.com or download a listing of tow ratings at www.trailerlife.com . (Car Hauler Parts)
Use weight-distributing hitches for heavier loads. These hitches redistribute the tongue weight(see Trailer Terms) throughout the frame of the tow vehicle. The result is that the trailer's weight is distributed among the trailer axles and the front and rear axles on the tow vehicle. Ask your dealer about weight distribution hitches if you intend to tow using a "bumper" type hitch or hitch receiver.
Fifth wheels and goosenecks are two weight-distributing hitches used most often with pickup trucks. The weight of the trailer is carried directly over the rear axle with the hitch mounted in the truck's bed.
A fifth wheel hitch is used for larger trailers and is a small version of the type of hitch used on semi trucks. A gooseneck coupler attaches to a tow ball that usually is mounted in the bed of a pickup truck. Underneath the bed are support rails that are bolted or welded into place. (Car Hauler Parts)
A frame-mounted hitch is one where the hitch is attached to the frame of the tow vehicle. This gives more stability to a bumper pull type of hitch.
Before every trip, check the tow ball and coupler car hauler parts to ensure they are the same size and that all bolts are securely tightened. Also, make sure the latching mechanism is locked in place. MSD
Encouraging economic signs for car haulers By: Posted by St. Eve
Filed Under: Automotive Haulers -
Encouraging economic signs for car haulers and car hauler parts Wallenius Wilhelmsen just ordered up two brand new Post Panamax ships. These are specially designed ocean-going ships for RORO freight (roll on; roll off) "Although the car hauler parts carrying market at the moment might be somewhat weaker than we would like, we believe that the long term underlying growth potential for deep sea transportation of cars and high and heavy equipment is strong and positive," says Jan Eyvin Wang, president and CEO in WWASA. "We are therefore pleased to have come to an agreement with HHI to build two state of the art Post Panamax car carriers. The agreement also includes an option to build another two vessels." Source. (Highlight mine.) I consider this especially encouraging, because these ships won't even be delivered until 2014 and 2015. If a big company like this is willing to make this kind of long-term capital investment in such an asset, they must feel that future demand in 2014, 2015 and beyond... will support it. According a article posted by the BBC on May 1st, 2013to the BBC, US auto manufacturers' sales are at six year highs. Chrysler: up 11%; Ford, 18%; GM 23%. One would hope that the increased sales and consequent increased hours at assembly plants and suppliers would create a virtuous circle in which the employment numbers could continue to improve. What does it mean for car haulers and car hauler parts (AL4-4001A)in North America? Well, if you're making money now, you're probably going to continue making money. If you can convince the bank to underwrite the loan, you'll probably make more money with a new or refurbished truck with car hauler parts. Less downtime and shop bills, am I right? "If you convince the bank to underwrite the loan." A big if. Seems like many banks are still frozen in that 2008 "Lehman Moment". The big banks are like so many deer caught in the headlights, uncertain what to do. One of my customers recently switched his business to a local credit union and got much better rates and service. So in conclusion, if you think you're going to grow... be prepared to think outside the box as it relates to asset purchases. If the fundamentals are there, it's probably worth doing... if you can find the money for a truck loan. (car hauler trailer parts) MSD
Go-Float Signs New Dealers to Sell Its Electric Boats By: By James Warden
Filed Under: Electric Boats -
Based in Hopkins, Go-Float boats garnered their some of their first brand exposure on and around Lake Minnetonka.
Go-Float has signed four new U.S. dealers and one Israeli resort to sell the company’s electric boat motors, the company announced Wednesday.
The additional dealers are part of growing success the company credits in part to this year’s outboard electric motors boats shows. Prior to the shows, it introduced four new models for 2012 with prices below $5,000. Its production team has doubled in size and expects to quadruple in 2012.
“Our boat show results for the outboard electric motors have been better than expected. We are signing new dealers and those dealers report that they’ve sold outboard electric motors boats within days of receiving their first shipment,” a news release quoted Steve Hendrickson, Go-Float’s general manager. “Our vision of outboard electric motors boating is connecting with all types of people and we are thrilled to see the growing interest in Go-Float and our outboard electric motors.”
Based in Hopkins, Go-Float electric outboard motors boats garnered their some of their first brand exposure on and around Lake Minnetonka. Go-Float launched to provide environmentally friendly watercraft to boaters by using electric boat motors. It initially offered just two models. The $1,995 SL1 resonated with those who wanted a slower, more-relaxing experience on the water, while the $9,495 RX1 could reach speeds up to 20 mph and was capable of pulling a water skier.
The four 2012 models range from the $1,895 Ion with a top speed of 4 mph to the $16,995 Vector that can go up to 22 mph.
Duffy Down Under debuts Duffy Electric Boats, Sanctuary Cove Boat Show By: Duffy Down Under at Sail-World.com
Filed Under: Electric Boats -
Well, it's not a sailing boat, but their hearts are in the right place. Duffy Down Under Pty Ltd is introducing a new Duffy Electric Boat model to Australia at the Sanctuary Cove International Boat Show 24-27 May in Berth D/E2 at the main marina.
This is the first time this electric boat motor will be displayed at the boat show, which is one of the primary boating events in Asia Pacific. The electric boat motor were also seen last week on the television show The Great South East.
The Duffy 22 Cuddy Cabin is being formally introduced to the Australian market for the first time. This spacious model is the flagship of the Duffy fleet, which offers unrivaled elegance, performance and innovation. The 22 Cuddy is equipped with the Patented Power Rudder, for unparalleled maneuverability, turning within its own length. You will not find more space, charm or performance capability in any other electric boat motors in the world. (electric motor for boats, electric outboard motors for boats)
Duffy Boats are dominant in harbors, lakes, and protected areas around the globe. Clean and quiet this model can hold up to 12 adults making it ideal for family outings, romantic cruises, entertaining or just exploring the wonderful Australian waterways.
'Duffy Electric Boats aren’t just an electric outboard boat,' explained Nitsa Kerr, Duffy Down Under’s general manager, 'they are a lifestyle. It’s like having your own limo on the water.' Each Duffy Electric Boat comes complete with full canopy top, full windowenclosures and a CD player with an iPod hookup. The electric boat motor cruises an average of 75 kilometers between charges, and the batteries recharge overnight for less than a few dollars AUD.
Gordon Kerr, Duffy Down Under chief executive. 'Duffy Electric Boats are ideal because of their zero emissions. They work harmoniously in the Gold Coast Marine Park with its varied fish life, dolphins, turtles and whales. As an added bonus, the electric boat motor is allowed in the Gold Coast areas where petrol-powered boats are forbidden.'
'In my 40 years in business travelling the world, I can tell you the Australian Gold Coast is perfect for our outboard electric motors. I firmly believe Duffy Electric Boats and the new Duffy 22 model will be ideal for those waterways,' noted Marshall 'Duffy' Duffield, company founder.
About Duffy Down Under Pty Ltd Duffy Down Under is introducing Duffy Electric Boats to the Queensland marketplace by raising the profile and awareness of these unique outboards electric motors, which are available for sale and also for hire seven days a week (weather permitting). The company also offers catering in partnership with local restaurants as well as group events and theme events. The company is has two locations at Mariners Cove Marina, Shop 4, Main Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland 4217 and Marina Village, 39B The Promenade, Sanctuary Cove, Queensland 4212.
About the Duffy Electric Boat Company Duffy Electric Boats, America’s largest electric boat motor manufacturer, has been in business since 1970. The company currently produces over eight different electric boat motors models. Each Duffy model is constructed from the highest quality materials in a company-owned factory located on over six acres in Adelanto, California. Duffy electric boat motor are emissions-free and low-maintenance. (electric motor for boats, electric outboard motors for boats)
Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Batteries for Electric Boats By: Armin Pauza, EBAA business member
Filed Under: Electric Boats -
This article explains the basic features and benefits regarding the latest developments in lithium ion battery technology which are now available for use with electric boat motors.
Up to the present time the electric boat motor owner has only had available one type of battery chemistry to provide propulsive power for their electric boat motor no matter whether the electric boat is an inboard or outboard motor. This battery type is of course the lead acid battery. There are two main variations to the lead acid battery depending upon its specific application. Broadly speaking the lead acid engine start or "cranking battery" in its intended application is designed to provide a short, high power burst of electrical current to crank over either a petrol or diesel engine while starting. The other main type of lead acid battery is the deep cycle or gel/AGM type which is used to provide sustained power for electrical devices and equipment over a long period. This is the type of battery which commonly provides house power on boats as well as presently being the most common type to power electric boat motors.
Both types of lead acid batteries however have severe limitations. Lead acid batteries are extremely heavy and while weight may not be an important factor for batteries in a stationary environment, for use in a motive application such as an electric boat motor, having to move (accelerate/decelerate) such a heavy dead weight does not make much common sense. In addition lead acid batteries contain nasty chemicals such as sulphuric acid and toxic heavy metals like lead which are potentially hazardous to the environment.
Lead is a very heavy metal and for many years the search has been on to make a better battery that is also lighter in weight. Lithium is the logical choice since it is the lightest metal known to man. However in addition to being extremely light in weight, lithium is also extremely reactive and for this reason pure lithium metal is never found in nature. Lithium metal is manufactured from lithium salts which are extracted through mining activities mainly from brine lakes. It can also be extracted from sea water.
Lithium ion batteries have been available for several years for many consumer applications which most people would be familiar with. As with lead acid batteries, lithium ion batteries also are available in several chemistries, each having their particular good and bad points. The earliest lithium battery chemistries which became a commercial reality and which are still in use today for consumer items like mobile Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)
Batteries for Electric Boats by Armin Pauza, EBAA business member Energy density comparison phones, notebook computer and camcorders etc. are cobalt oxide lithium ion batteries. Li-Co batteries have high energy densities but have the disadvantage that in large format applications and in cases where many separate cells are used which can potentially become unbalanced during several charge cycles, they can pose a dangerous risk of fire or explosion is a possibility. While these batteries are generally considered quite safe in small format applications such as for mobile phones and the like (generally one cell only is used therefore this is why the battery voltage of a typical mobile phone battery is 3.6 -3.7 volts) there could be disastrous consequences should a large lithium battery of this chemistry fitted to a boat catch fire. (electric motor for boats
In the mid 1990's Dr John B Goodenough and his research team from the University of Texas developed material used to make the Lithium Iron Phosphate battery (LiFePO4 for short). Dr Goodenough patented his invention and gave permission to Phostech Lithium/Hydro Quebec Canada to manufacture this material in commercial quantities for the production of LiFePO4 batteries which would be a superior replacement for lead acid batteries.
Unlike the hazardous nature of the earlier chemistry lithium battery types, lithium iron phosphate batteries are extremely stable and safe to use. This safety combined with their light weight has found wide use for these batteries for military applications and now for the emerging electric vehicle markets including electric boats. They are in fact even safer than lead acid batteries and do not suffer from some of the problems which are inherent to lead acid batteries such as, thermal runaway, sulphation when left in a discharged condition and high rates of self discharge if not used. Lead acid batteries generally have a life of only a few hundred deep charge cycles while a quality LiFePO4 battery can typically be charged in excess of 2000 times. (electric motor for boats)
Though not as high in energy density as the earlier lithium battery types, the lithium iron phosphate battery still has a far higher energy density compared to the lead acid battery as can be seen from the graph on the left.
In recent years large format LiFePO4 batteries have been made to replace lead acid batteries and these batteries are now being widely used for battery packs to power electric vehicles as well as hybrid electric cars. They are also being used in high power electric cordless power tools.
The benefits to the boat owner of a quality LiFePO4 battery are many. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are a truly multi-application battery type so the one battery or battery bank can be used to provide propulsive power for the electric motor for boats/s as well as to supply all the electrical loads on a boat. Normally the electric motor requires a voltage of 36V, 48V or higher voltage while 12V is required for house power, radios, Lithium battery bank navigation lights, etc. In this case a suitable DC/DC converter should be used to provide the lower voltage from the higher voltage main battery bank. It is very bad practice and still used by some manufacturers to simply tap off 12V from a single battery in the main battery pack to supply this lower voltage. This can lead to uneven discharging of different batteries due to varying loads which can further result in some batteries being over charged while others end up being less than fully charged. By fitting a DC/DC converter all batteries are discharged evenly regardless of varying loads. This will result in the longest life from all batteries and will minimise the chances of individual batteries failing prematurely which is a strong possibility if a DC/DC converter is not used.
Another major factor which should be taken into consideration when replacing a lead acid battery with a LiFePO4 battery is that due to the higher energy density and greater performance of the lithium battery often a smaller battery can be used which will provide equivalent or better performance compared to the original lead acid battery. For many applications a 60Ah LiFePO4 battery will provide equivalent performance to a 100Ah lead acid battery. This difference in performance can clearly be seen if both battery types are compared side by side in high current drain applications (for example if used to power an electric boat motor at high power settings). What many people fail to realise about a lead acid battery is that its capacity (Ah) rating is usually specified at the 20 hour discharge rate. At high rates of discharge the effective or "real" battery capacity is reduced considerably due to "Peukert's Effect". A typical 100Ah lead acid battery when discharged in an hour or two may have an actual measured capacity of as little as 60-70Ah. LiFePO4 batteries are not negatively affected in the same way by Peukert's Effect as are lead acid batteries. (electric motor for boats)
When a lead acid battery is connected to a load (such as an electric motor for example) the voltage slowly continues to decrease until the battery is completely discharged. By contrast the discharge characteristic of a LiFePO4 battery is quite different. The discharge curve of LiFePO4 battery is close to being linear for about 90% of its capacity. Therefore a LiFePO4 battery can be almost fully discharged yet it will provide very close to the same power as when it was fully charged. During the last 10% of the batteries capacity the voltage will drop very suddenly.
Another great benefit of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries for boating applications is due to their inherent safety features. Since they do not produce flammable hydrogen gas under any circumstances (even if overcharged) a LiFePO4 battery can be safely installed in a confined place in a boat or ship without fear of a fire or explosion occurring. There is absolutely no maintenance required so a battery can be fitted into an out of the way space in an electric boat such as under seats, under stair wells, in the hull, etc. Due to slim cylindrical nature of many LiFePO4 cells a custom battery of virtually any shape can be made which will fit into any tight space in an electric boat. Battery cells can even be fitted inside a mast or inside hollow railings. (electric motor for boats)
Another advantage of LiFePO4 batteries is their rapid charge capability. High quality batteries can be re-charged extremely quickly. In fact premium quality LiFePO4 batteries can be re-charged from a completely discharged state to more than 90% fully charged in only fifteen minutes with a suitable fast charger from shore power. Of course they can also be more slowly trickle charged by solar panels or more quickly aboard the boat via an engine driven back up generator/alternator. A deeply discharged deep cycle/AGM lead acid battery can only be re-charged in a matter of hours and not minutes. For many electric boats this rapid charge capability will be a godsend.
Weight is another factor of concern to owners of electric boat motors. A Lithium Iron Phosphate battery is usually about half the weight of an equivalent capacity lead acid battery. For example the photo of the battery bank below shows a large LiFePO4 battery bank used to power three motors fitted to a 55ft electric racing catamaran. It was originally planned to fit more than half a ton of AGM lead acid batteries to this boat before the owner learned of the benefits of LiFePO4 batteries. Due to the many benefits the owner of the boat decided to install LiFePO4 batteries instead and was able to reduce the total weight of the battery bank by more than half with the total of all twelve batteries weighing in at less than 200kg.
To sum up, an overview of the benefits of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries:
• Safe technology, will not catch fire or explode with overcharge
• Over 2000 discharge cycles life compared to typically around 300 for lead acid
• Double the usable capacity of similar amp hour lead acid batteries
• Virtually flat discharge curve means maximum power available until fully discharged (no "voltage sag" with time as with lead acid batteries).
• Unlike lead acid batteries, can be left in a partially discharged state for extended periods without causing permanent damage
• Extremely low self discharge rate (unlike lead acid which will go flat quite quickly if left sitting for long periods)
• Does not suffer from "thermal runaway"
• Can be used safely in high ambient temperatures of up to 60 deg.C or more without any degradation in performance
• Can be connected in series for higher voltages or parallel for higher capacity.
• Absolutely maintenance free for the life of the battery
• Can be operated in any orientation
• Does not contain any toxic heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, nor any corrosive acids or alkalis thus making LiFePO4 batteries the most environmentally friendly battery chemistry available
• LiFePO4 cells are of solid construction. There are no fragile/brittle plates made of lead which can be prone to failure over time as a result of vibration.
• Can be safely rapidly recharged. When fully discharged can be re-charged to more than 90% full battery capacity in only 15 minutes.
There are already several brands of LiFePO4 batteries which are available to boat owners and are suitable for powering many kinds of electric motors from tiny trolling motors to large inboard electric motors of several horsepower. The prospective battery purchaser should be aware that the majority of the LiFePO4 batteries manufactured in China are of very poor quality and correspondingly provide poor overall performance. These batteries will also have a shorter life than a quality LiFePO4 battery. Only high quality LiFePO4 batteries should be used by the electric boat owner so as to provide peace of mind in terms of battery reliability. One way a battery buyer can gauge the quality of any particular battery brand is to check what kind of warranty the manufacturer/supplier will provide and whether it is a factory backed warranty or only a distributor backed warranty in the country of sale since many distributors of Chinese batteries are required by law to provide a minimum warranty period when a battery is sold in a western country. If a battery manufacturer is not prepared to stand behind their own products by providing a lengthy factory backed warranty then it is best to steer well clear of these companies so as to avoid any possible headaches in the future. (electric motor for boats)
Chinese battery cell manufacturers will often assemble their cells using less expensive manufacturing techniques thereby reducing the final cost of the battery to the customer at the expense of shorter cycle life and/or poorer performance. For example some manufacturers will simply crimp end terminal caps on the cells while other manufacturers will spot weld or even fully laser weld the cell ends. Obviously a cell which is merely crimped will be cheaper to manufacture than a cell which is fully laser welded. By the same token the crimped cell is also more prone to fail prematurely due to slow ingress of moisture, humidity and other atmospheric contaminants which in a laser welded cell are totally excluded from entering the cell for the life of the cell. It really is a case of having to pay more for quality. By paying more for a quality battery a great deal of frustration can be avoided and allow the electric boat owner to enjoy the tranquillity of silent, electric boating without any noise or exhaust fumes. There are a handful of manufacturers of A-grade quality Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries which will outlast several lead acid batteries and provide vastly superior performance and thereby bring much enjoyment to the owner of the electric boat they are fitted in.
Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are sure to revolutionise and bring about the growth of the electric boating market in the years to come. (electric motor for boats) MSD
Electric Boats: Then and Now By: Four Seasons Electric Boats Website
Filed Under: Electric Boats -
Electric boats are definitely not a new concept. What is believed to be the very first marine outboard motor was invented in 1880 by a French inventor, Gustave Trouve, and it was electric. In the early 1890's electric boats were first introduced in the United State with the formation of the Electric Launch Company (Elco) in Bayonne, New Jersey. It was the Chicago Exposition in 1893 that put them on the map. Elco was requested to build fifty-five (55) 36-foot electric launches for this event. Ticket sales to transport people around the Chicago area lakes and rivers exceeded 1,000,000.
That was over 120 years ago and at that time electric motors were the preferred form of propulsion. The electric "Picnic Launch" became the essence of a perfect lake cruise. Elco's company records reveal that Thomas Edison, John Jacob Astor, Admiral Dewey, George Westinghouse, and the Grand Duke Alexander of Russia were all owners of Elco electric launches.
There were, of course, steam engines that were very powerful, yet heavy, a lot of work and not conducive to a pleasant cruising experience - especially when their boilers would explode. In the late 1800s, there were also gasoline engines. These engines at that time were called "Explosion Engines". The names were later changed to "Gasoline Engines" to make them sound safer, and more appealing to the consumer.
After about 1920, gasoline and diesel engines became the primary propulsion units for boats - but they could never offer the quality of the electric cruising experience. At that time, electric boats lost their following, because the batteries could not carry enough energy to match the horsepower of the internal combustion engine - as folks became more intrigued with speed at the expense of comfort and quality of the boating experience.
However the Navy's submarines continued to rely heavily on electric propulsion - because it is fundamentally reliable, efficient, and quiet. Later on, Navy ships and commercial vessels returned to electric propulsion systems for the same reasons - but using generators to create the electricity.Today, the Queen Mary II is powered exclusively with electric motors that generate 157,000 horsepower.
So electric propulsion is not a "new concept" and is considered by far the most reliable form of propulsion. Not only is electric propulsion reliable and efficient, it offers the ultimate pleasure boating experience: relaxing, quiet, and NO smelly fumes.For these reasons combined with the advances in battery technology, electric pleasure boating has enjoyed a revival over the passed few decades.
Several companies, including Duffy Electric Boats, considered the industry leader of this revival since 1970, have resurrected the electric launch and other more contemporary designs.
Electric boating has become the boating lifestyle of choice for many thousands around the world in many different venues for the mainstream population.
Green Inventor Talks Solar Powered Boats By: Aaron Colter
Filed Under: Electric Boats -
Before starting Tamarack Electric Boats, Montgomery Gisborne was interested in electric cars, but now he's focused on the water. Since 1993, Gisborne has been involved in the technical aspects of electric vehicles in Canada. Gisborne has been competing in the American version of the Tour del Sol since 1997, placing first in 2003, and he even created a similar race called the Canadian Clean Air Cruise.
To date, Gisborne has logged over 31,000 miles of travel in electric vehicles. But he's not only concerned with cars. In 2003 he built one of the world's first electric snowmobiles, and two years later he founded Tamarack Electric Boats. We've covered solar boats many times, and the company's latest invention, the Loon, caught our eye and when given the opportunity, we thought readers would like to know more about a man who designs such interesting electric vehicles.
EarthTechling (ET): You have an extensive background in electric cars, what made you want to start an electric boat company?
Montgomery Gisborne: Having built electric cars and electrified many other devices such as a snowmobile, I was always looking for a business opportunity in the mix. I had thought of building electric cars for a living, especially after coming in first in the 2003 American Tour del Sol electric car rally, but the reality that you cannot become GM overnight settled in. After much deliberation, I decided that the idea of a solar-powered boat must be a good one, perhaps my best, so I decided to build me first solar boat as a "science project" in 2005. The boat worked so well that I little choice but to purse it!
ET: Was there any specific reason that you were looking to move the company from Canada to the United States?
Gisborne: Sure, more people, water and sun. I think that we brought our ideas to NYS at a time when Canada seemed to focus its attention the Athabasca Tar Sands, and NYS was looking for sustainable product projects to create sustainable jobs. Then there's this crazy little piece of legislation which was brought into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) called the Jones Act which prohibits Canadian companies from selling boats into the US, so we had a triumvirate of good reasons to move across the border.
ET: Was the NYSERDA incentive program the biggest draw to relocate to Rome, NY?
Gisborne: No, probably not. You may have heard the old expression that "it takes a village . . . " I believe it is very true. When I passed through Rome on my solar trek across the state in 2007, i was overwhelmed by the reaction and enthusiasm of the people, more so that anywhere else I had traveled in my solar boats (which says a lot). The entire town seemed to make time to be there to catch our lines as we tossed them to shore, which really impressed me. The mayor of the town clearly saw the vision and has done more than we could ever have expected to convince us that Rome is our home. Incidentally, the first shovelful of earth removed in the construction of the Erie Canal was taken out of the ground pretty much in font of our shop on July 4th, 1817.
I think we would have made the move anyway, without NYSERDA funding, but the funding made it possible and got us started much quicker than if we had to go it completely alone. The funding is great, but it takes more than money to create an industry, it takes drive and determination beyond my own.
ET: Why did you decide on solar-power for the Loon above other electric options?
Gisborne: There are so many reasons that make solar a natural on an electric boat. People look at my boats and say, "Oh, I get it, when the is moored at the it is picked up a free charge." While this is certainly true, the rationale for the solar goes far beyond that. For example, it dramatically reduced Peukert Effect on lead-acid batteries. Without getting into a long-winded technical discussion, this effect has a negative effect on batteries when the boat is under power, reducing the instantaneous capacity of the energy storage cells, and the solar input helps to reduce that effect, thus increasing the effective range the boat can travel on a given charge. This also helps the lead-acid batteries to better compete against other chemistries, such as nickel and lithium-based batteries at lower expense.
I hate oil is the reason why I eschew any internal-combustion options. It is the greatest detriment to the North American economy and a threat to world peace.
STUART — STUART — When St. Petersburg boaters Nancy Frainetti and Jeff Springfield pulled up to the fuel dock at Hutchinson Island Marriott Marina in Stuart Tuesday afternoon, one thing was noticeably absent — engine noise.
A leisurely cruise from the River Forest Yachting Center on the St. Lucie Canal in Tropical Acres to the Marriott served as the final leg of the 8-day, 250-mile “Cruise to the Atlantic.”
Frainetti and Springfield, owners of Endeavour Green, builders of electric hybrid yachts, left St. Petersburg June 16 and traversed the Okeechobee Waterway in their 24-foot boat while using only $16 in electricity and a few gallons of diesel fuel.
“We did this to show people that this is not a ‘toy boat,’” said Springfield, a longtime captain who said many boaters think electric-powered boats are typically for small lakes and short trips. “A typical boating family might enjoy a 20-mile trip. We had legs of this trip of 40, 47 and on Monday, 52 miles in a day.”
The technology behind the Endeavour involves a 48 volt array of batteries that turn the 13 horsepower D & D motor. The electric motor uses a twin belt setup to turn the drive shaft for a 3-blade bronze inboard propeller.
The batteries can be charged at home or marina by plugging into a 110 volt outlet. To recharge the batteries while under way, a 3.5 kilowatt Master Volt Whisper diesel generator is employed. During the 8-day trip, Springfield said only nine hours were put on the generator and at 3.8 hours per gallon, they needed less than three gallons of diesel.
The Endeavour provided comfortable passage, Frainetti said, despite record heat during their trip. A full-length canvas top — one that can fold down and serve as a boat cover when not in use — shades a large area.
“We endured a little weather — but that’s something boaters are used to handling,” Frainetti said. “It got a little hot out on Lake Okeechobee Monday, but we managed to keep it from baking our brains.”
Frainetti said that although the Endeavour has Eisenglass and air conditioning, they survived without it.
Frainetti said she saw several manatees during the trip and counted 38 alligators while crossing Lake Okeechobee.
Springfield said the hybrid technology is receiving a lot of interest from the boating community. He said that one selling feature is the simplicity of its design.
“It’s an easy boat to own,” Springfield said. “It’s very simple — there are no complex systems. All the electrical components are solid state design. There are no fumes, vibration or noise. And because you are carrying little or no fuel, insurance rates are great.”
Hybrid boats making waves in South Florida By: Allison Bybee
Filed Under: Electric Boats -
A brand new boat making waves in South Florida, and it runs on batteries. The Endeavour Green Company, part of the Endeavour Catamaran Corporation, showed off it's "green" boat. Co-owners, Nancy Frainetti and Jeff Stringfield, traveled from Saint Petersburg to Stuart. They did it all on battery power, no gas or diesel fuel needed, unless you want to use the back-up generator on board. The Endeavor Green Company created the boat, which is equivalent to a gas or diesel fueled deck boat. The starting cost is around $42,000. The owners say it's well worth the price, and it helps the environment. Endeavour Co-owner, Nancy Frainetti, says, "We have no emissions on the electric propulsion. So, it's as green as can be. What a wonderful benefit."
The boat is also decked out with a bathroom on board and air conditioning. It charges up each night, and usually costs only $1.50. Take that versus a gas or diesel engine that could cost you anywhere from $50 to $75 dollars a day to gas up.
How to Build an Electric Motorcycle By: Stryker at Instructables.com
Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
I only work 3 miles from home but with gas prices getting out of control, I thought it would be great to have an electric motorcycle. I've always wanted an electric motorcycle and decided that doing an electric motorcycle conversion with an electric motorcycle motor would be a good EV project, keeping costs down, and be fun to ride.
This project took about 3 months of research and development (not counting waiting for parts to come in or help from a friend with the welding). All in all, it cost about $3000 to build an electric motorcyclewith a high performance electric motorcycle motor. This may take a long time to pay off in gas savings, but if you add the fun of building and all of the environmental benefits, it was well worth the effort. With a top electric motorcycle motor speed of over 70 mph and 10 miles per charge, this electric motorcycle is perfect for me. The following instructable will not give you exact step by step instructions, but if you have some mechanical skills and welding ability you should be okay. A little knowledge of electric motorcycle motor maintenance wouldn't hurt, too. However, I just read the user's manual and learned as I went.
Every motorbike is different but the basic components can be the same. Below is a list of the parts I used and where I got them, but you will have to do some research to figure out what fits your bike and requirements. Check out the electric motorcycle photos at the bottom to see what I bought and the EVAlbum for other electric motorcycle conversions.
Frame: I looked at many different bike styles and decided on a 1984 Honda Interceptor for my electric motorcycle conversion for a few reasons:
1) I like the style of bike, not a total crotch rocket but not a hog either, with room for electric motorcycle batteries inside the frame. 2) The seller on Ebay was close to my house. And the bike didn't run, so it only cost $600 which is a perfect price for your first time electric motorcycle conversion . If you have an old bike or someone will donate one then that's great--but for the rest of us, try the local paper, junk yards, Craig's List or ebay motors.
Electric Motorcycle Motor:
After reading other electric motorcycle conversion specs (and knowing that I wanted to go faster than a moped), I chose a 72V electric motorcycle motor(D&D Motorsystems carries many options), because it's weight and dimensions where good for my frame.
Electric MotorcycleBatteries: I went with 6 Yellow Top Optima batteries from remybattery.com because they are sealed and have received great reviews. After making cardboard mock ups of the D23 model I realized that there was no way six full sized batteries would fit and still look good. I ended up getting the D51 model. Half the size and weight but also half the storage.
Electric Motorcycle Controller: You have to match your electric motorcycle controller to your voltage but the amperage is up to your budget. More amps = more power and more cost. It seems that there are only two real choices: Alltrax or Curtis. You'll have to decide for yourself, but I went with the 72V 450Amp Alltrax.(D&D Motor Systems carries these) Don't waste your time trying to build a potimeter on an old throttle--just buy a pre-made one and be done with it. I got the Magura 0-5K Twist grip throttle.
Electric Motorcycle Charger: You have to match your charger with your voltage but the speed of charge in Amps is also up to your budget. I went with a Zivan NG1 but I have recently switched to six individual 3amp Soneil chargers to help balance the batteries.
Electric Motorcycle DC/DC Converter: It's safest to run with a DC/DC converter and an extra 12V battery backup but motorcycles have limited space so I am only using the converter. I purchased a Sevcon 72V Input 13.5V output from evparts and it has working perfectly.
Electric Motorcycle Fuses: You'll want to get a fuse that matches your setup. I bought model ANN 400 w/ holder.(D&D Motor Systems carries these)
Electric MotorcycleSolenoid: This is a device that you hook up to your existing key ignition on 12Volts and it will close the loop so you get the full power to your controller. An excellent Solenoid is the Albright SW-180B-12.(D&D Motor Systems carries these)
Electric MotorcycleBattery cable and connectors- I bought about 10 feet of 2 GA wire from WAL-MART and cut it to length. Using Lugs, I soldered and used heat shrink tubing on each end. I highly recommend battery terminal covers for safety.
Electric MotorcycleInstruments I chose an E-meter(Link 10) w/ Prescaler add on for 72V use instead of a bunch of different meters. As an added feature I wired up the ignition switch to the neutral indicator to show me when the bike was on.
Electric MotorcycleOther parts Wire - 12GA different colors and heat shrink tubing (large and small sizes) Electrical tape Wire connectors Wire wrap
Tools Basic shop tools are required such as a socket set, screw drivers,wire stripper, etc. Additionally a volt meter, metal grinder and crimper are used in this electric motorcycle conversion project.
Start the electric motorcycle conversion by removing all of those nasty internal combustion engine parts. Remove the gas tank and using your grinder or other cutting tool to cut out the bottom. This makes room for extra batteries or components. (Make sure all gas is out before cutting) Reference your owners manual often during any electric motorcycle conversions so that you don't cut any necessary wires, and try to sell some of the parts to help pay for this electric motorcycle conversion project.
Next, make cardboard mock ups of all of your batteries and electronic components to see how and where things are going to fit. Take a look at my electric motorcycle conversions pictures to see how I fit everything, believe me that taking the time to make accurate cardboard mock ups is well worth the effort.
Now for the hard part. You need a secure battery box and electric motorcycle motor mount for any electric motorcycleconversion. I had a friend weld it up for me and he did a fantastic job. From the photos you can see that he first strung up the electric motorcycle motor to allow for minor adjustment to be made before cutting the electric motorcycle motor mount plate. After that was cut he made a nice chain and sprocket enclosure with a door and welded them onto the frame.
Next he fabricated the battery rack and gave each battery a swing arm closure to give a tight fit yet still allow me to get them out easily. Half inch foam padding spacers are between each battery to help cushion the stack--but believe me, they aren't going anywhere. The last thing he did was weld in metal plates for mounting my electric motorcycle motor.
After you get your electric motorcycle motor mount and battery compartment all welded up, take some time to clean up the frame of your bike. I removed any rust spots and chipped paint that I could find. Then I used some metallic gray and black spray paint. This makes a world of difference and costs very little.
I made a fake gas cap and ran the power cord from the charger up the frame and out the top.
Now that you have all of the welding done and your electric motorcycle frame looks great, let's install the electrical components and start wiring it up your electric motorcycle conversion.
Wiring. This depends on the electric motorcycle components you buy. See the manufacturers wiring diagrams.
Double check all of your connections and tighten every bolt.
I wanted my electric motorcycle conversions bike to look as good as it rides, so I had all of the panels painted and custom graphics made up by worldsendimages.
Using a serial cable and laptop, tweak the electric motorcycle controller program for your riding preferences.
Lastly, I got the electric motorcycle conversion bike inspected and insured. (Be prepared for the dealership mechanics to swarm and hit you with a bunch of questions and jokes about failing the emissions test).
I know these weren't step by step building instructions, but that's because of the complexity of this electric motorcycle conversion project and variables in component use. My intention was to give you the motivation to build your own by seeing how I did it and make it easier by supplying the electric motorcycle parts list and a wiring diagram. MSD
2012 Brutus Electric Motorcycle Promises To Be Green, Mean By: Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield
Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
Think about the names given to electric cars and electric motorcycles on the market today.
Most, if not all, are a play on the concept of all-electric, zero tailpipe emissions travel.
So when we heard about a team of engineers in Henderson, Nevada who were developing a new electric motorcycle called Brutus 2, we had to investigate.
Retro Styled, Classic Charm
Squint at the all-electric Brutus 2 and you’d be forgiven for thinking it was a classic Harley Davidson bobber or perhaps an Orange County Chopper. (build electric motorcycle)
Either that, or a working prop from a film set in a post-appocolyptic future, Mel Gibson optional.
Designed from the ground up to be the living embodiment of a sports cruiser, Brutus 2 is the first electric motorcycle we’ve seen that caters directly to fans of classic American motorcycles.
Brutus 2 is also the first real stealth electric motorcycle motor we’ve seen. Unless you look at it closely, it doesn't immediately appear electric.
In fact, park it up beside similar gas motorcycles, and we think you’d have a tough time telling it apart from the rest.
It Isn’t Just Tough By Name
But as many classic motorcycle fans will tell you, good looks and a tough name will only get a motorcycle so far.
In order to be considered a real motorcycle, it has to perform like one.
That’s no problem for Brutus 2, claims Chris Bell, the original designer and owner of Brutus Electric Motorcycles.
Although it hasn’t had any official range, or performance tests, Bell claims the 535-pound motorcycle can spring from 0-60 mph in around 4.7 seconds, reach a top speed of over 100 mph, and travel over 100 miles per charge.
These impressive performance figures are apparently down to a five-speed clutchless transmission, a powerfulD&D Motor SystemsDC motor, and a liquid-cooled Zilla controller more commonly found in electric drag race cars like BlackCurrent III
There aren’t any details published on battery pack capacity, although Bell claims Brutus 2 should recharge its 144-volt lithium-ion battery pack in 3 hours from an available 110-volt wall outlet. Using some basic math, we think that translates to a battery capacity of between 4 and 5 kilowatt-hours. (build electric motorcycle)
Here’s the catch: while Brutus 2 is certainly an real electric motorcycle motor built for real motorcyclists, it hasn’t entered production yet.
According to Bell, that should happen some time this year, provided current deals being discussed with various parts and manufacturing companies are signed.
But right now, the all-electric beast is nothing more than an impressive prototype motorcycle awaiting production.
And that’s a real shame, because we think this is exactly the kind of electric motorcycle that needs to be built in order to help convince mainstream motorcyclists that electric powered motorcycles can be mean and green at the same time. (build electric motorcycle) MSD
E-motorcycle offers hot ride, keeps the cool By: Angeli Duffin
Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
Making the case for an electric car - higher up-front costs, but then much less expensive and environmentally damaging to operate - to someone switching from a gasoline-powered car is pretty straightforward.
But convincing someone to trade in their Harley for an electric motorcycle? That could be more challenging. There has to be an element of cool. And speed.
Which is what two Purdue University students and AllCell Technologies set out to produce – and appear to have delivered, with an electric motorcyclethat packs 72 kilowatts of power and, according to early tests, can hit 120 mph and cover 120 miles on a charge, according to AllCell.
The company said the trick to creating this high-performance bike was in the 10.6 kilowatt-hour lithium ion battery that uses AllCell’s thermal management material.
The phase change material graphite composite (PCM-graphite) controls the impact if one cell has an internal short circuit, and the PCM material absorbs and distributes heat away from the battery, protecting the cells and maximizing battery life.
While some motorcyclists might enjoy being daredevils, with this motorcycle riders can let ‘er rip and concentrate on driving without worrying about unnecessary things like an overheating battery. Apart from the battery, electric vehicle experts Tesla Motors and Delphi Corporation also provided support for the project, AllCell said.
This team is not alone in the quest for the superior electric motorcycle motor. There seems to be quite a trend in motorcycle conversion to electric in garages, notably from a fellow Purdue student who we reported used solar power to power his, yes that’s right, Solar Cycle.
However, for those of us who aren’t that confident in our mechanical skills, there are a growing number of companies producing electric motorcycles with both coolness (largely because of their green-factor) and impressive power and speed. (electric motorcycle conversion)
Will Electric Motorcycles Catch On Faster Than Electric Cars? By: By Jonathan Welsh
Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
The International Motorcycle Show starts in New York today, so the Jacob Javits Center will be awash in chrome-crusted cruisers weighing more than 600 pounds and packing car-size engines, and screaming superbikes with enough horsepower to fly a four-passenger airplane.
But some of the most intriguing machines at the show are small, light and nearly silent.
Electric motorcycles powered by lithium batteries are beginning to look like contenders in a bike market that is increasingly concerned about fuel efficiency, emissions and noise.
Electrics may attract customers who like the idea of two-wheel transport but are put off by the mechanical complexity of traditional motorcycles and the perceived difficulty in riding them. They may also have particular appeal to urban riders and commuters who can operate more easily within the bikes’ limited range.
I test-rode an electric sport motorcycle called the Zero S this and week and was surprised by how appealing it is even for someone who loves the chugging rhythm of a Ducati twin or the wail of an old Honda V4. The quiet whir of the electric motor and its impressive off-the-line acceleration made the Zero ideal for city riding, where hearing nearby traffic can be as important as seeing it.
While the motor puts out about 28 horsepower, it feels like much more, especially when accelerating from a standstill. I was able to leave menacing taxis far behind and the bike’s weight of less than 300 pounds gave it a light, athletic feel that made getting through midtown New York’s congestion enjoyable.
The Zero S has evolved since 2009, when I rode an early version. The new bike is faster, smoother and better-looking than its predecessor and has a tighter, well-finished feel. It’s ready for prime time.
As with electric cars, though, high prices could keep some customers away. The S and its on-road-off-road stable mate the DS start at $11,495. The higher-capacity battery that boosts range to 114 miles from about 76 miles with the standard battery also increases the price to $13,995. That amount would buy a Honda CBR1000RR, which is close to being a street-legal racing bike.
Of course riders interested in electric motorcycles are not cross-shopping superbikes. But the Zero’s price premium could hurt sales.
Still, the simple joy of riding the Zero could be as big a selling point as its potential fuel savings. In many ways its design and the way it rides are throwbacks to the minimalism and excitement of earlier motorcycles that drew so many people into riding decades ago.
While I tell people that my next new car will probably be electric, a battery-powered motorcycle, in some ways, would be a better fit.
A new day.. a new bike. Electric Motorsports of California By: azhar
Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
Oakland California USA,Electric Motorsport
Inc. has unveiled its two entries for the June/12th Isle of Man TTXGP. In
the open class is a modified production electric motorcycle called the GPR-S.
The Electric Motorsport GPR-S were the first Production
Electricmotorcycles capable of attaining legal freeway speeds in the
In the Pro Class, the entry is the Electric Motorsport R144.
This conversion is based on an R1 race chassis. This motorcycle utilizes
a high performance electric motor designed and manufactured by D&D Motor
Electric Motorsport is a technology company that specializes in
Light Electric Vehicles and electric propulsion systems. Electric Motorsport is proud to say they have supplied electric drive
systems and components to many of the TTXGP teams that will be
competing.Why does Electric Motorsport supply its
competitors with hi-performance electric drive components?Electric motorsport Founder and CEO Todd Kollin says "its mainly to
promote the technology and to have some one to race with, and besides we are
in the parts business.Racing is just the fun part and its not much
fun without competition."
Electric Motorsport Inc has always placed an
emphasis on the Electric motorcycle as away of using renewable energy such as
solar, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal to propel ourselves from one location
to the next.The company has sold 1000's of electric
motorcycle conversion kits.Electric Motorsport even sells books
on how to convert your old gas motorcycle to electric.These
conversions are great if you have a old bike that does not run so well or has a
blown engine.An electric conversion can bring the thing
back to life but without having to deal with oil, gas, noise, fumes, warm ups,tune
ups, gear boxes, clutches.
Honda Promises An Electric Motorcycle By 2010 By: Tony Borroz
Filed Under: Electric Motorcycles -
So Honda is getting into the electric motorcycle biz huh? Well, now we know what they plan to do with all the engineering talent suddenly available from their now defunct F1 & AMA efforts.
Motorcycle News (via our friends at AutoBlogGreen) says Honda is serious about building a workable Ebike and selling it to the likes of you and me by 2010. Sure, that sounds plausible. Honda has the engineering grunt and it pretty much has the whole motorcycle thing down, so it seems like a lead pipe cinch.
I spent some time with an outfit made electric scooters and motorcycles. It was a real geeky operation making scooters and souped-up jobs custom-built to customers' needs, desires and checkbooks. Once or twice a year someone with sacks of money would come in and say something along the lines of "Take my GSX-R and make it electric." We would, but we'd invariably face the same challenges everyone else building EVs faces: range and recharge times.
Yeah, we could build an electric GSX-R that would out haul Valentino Rossi - for about seven to 10 miles. Then you'd stop. And then you'd have to plug it in for six or eight or 10 hours. The bike was cool, but not very practical. You couldn't take the thing up some canyon road on your way out of town to Palm Springs for a three day weekend. These will be the same limitations that Honda will face, but in a couple of not so noticeable ways, electric motorcycles play to Honda's strengths.
For one, bikes are easy. They're small, light and easy to work on. You can fab up and try things on two or three test mules in an afternoon, and that's an order of magnitude or so harder with cars. For another, Honda is a bike company. Yeah, I know, tell that to Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost and Ron Dennis, but it started out primarily as a bike company (OK, go back far enough and it started out as a piston ring company, but still...) then morphed into a car company. What Honda learns from making an Ebike over the next two years can, hopefully, migrate to cars.
Honda confirms working with bikes is favorable on a number of levels.
"History shows that motorcycles remain strong in a difficult market environment and have always supported Honda in difficult times," says CEO Takeo Fukui. "People showed renewed interest in the value of motorcycles which consume less fuel for commuting purposes as well as for their easy-to-own/easy-to-use efficiency."
Good point, Takeo. That's another thing bikes got going for them: They're cheap.
Pound for pound and dollar for dollar motorcycles are the best bet for enthusiast fun. Not for me, of course, because I am comically and frighteningly uncoordinated and that's never a good thing on a motorcycle. But you get my point.
Think of what Honda is doing as a real world proof of concept scheme. Make an electric motorcycle. Make it work. Make it work better. Then import the technology into a car. Repeat the process.
An Electric Hybrid Truck Designed For Utility Fleets By: Ucilia Wang
Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
If you can soup up a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle(EV), what features would you want? For some fleet managers, turning plug-in hybrids into a source for powering up construction tools or buildings during a blackout is high on the list.
That’ why Pacific Gas & Electric Co. has been helping VIA Motors to convert new General Motors trucks into plug-in hybrids with the ability to export a large amount of power. The utility, the largest in California, envisions sending a bunch of these trucks into the field for routine maintenance work and to deal with emergencies. The amount of exportable power here will be large enough to run hydraulic lifts to send workers up the powerlines to do repairs or serve as backup power for homes while workers fix faulty circuits or transformers, said Dave Meisel, director of transportation services at PG&E. (EV motors)
Hybrid cars offer fuel savings over time – the price of gasoline has risen and will continue to increase at greater rates than the price of electricity – as well as environmental benefits such as lower emissions, he said. As federal and states introduce stricter fuel economy and emission standards, businesses must comply by buying vehicles with more fuel-efficient engines or ones that run on cleaner sources of fuels. But alternative-fuel vehicles also tend to cost more partly because they aren’t made in large volumes, and fleet managers very much focus on the payback period of their investments. (electric motor conversion kits)
Adding the exportable power feature creates additional savings for fleet owners like PG&E, Meisel said. It eliminates the need for buying portable generators that run on fossil fuels, for example. Using the hybrid trucks to reduce the length of a blackout also is an attractive proposition for utilities, which face fines if their customers experience a high number of outages or if they can’t restore power quickly.
“We are looking at broader savings that a lot of people are not looking at,” Meisel said. “When I look at the total operational savings, including fuel savings, the math starts to look really nice.” PG&E has about 9,000 vehicles in its fleet, and roughly 3,100 of them run on alternative fuels, such as natural gas, electricity and biodiesel. (electric car motor)
PG&E has been field-testing two EV trucks since last year and giving the car company feedback about its experience and suggestions for improvements. The utility estimates that the trucks could deliver annual fuel maintenance savings of $7000 per vehicle compared with conventional trucks, said Greg Pruett, senior vice president of corporate affairs at PG&E, during a press event at the Detroit auto show earlier this month when VIA discussed its plans to launch not just hybrid trucks but also hybrid SUVs and vans. VIA plans to convert only GM models, such as the Chevy Silverado, for now.
VIA has developed a powertrain that includes a 24 kilowatt-hour lithium-ion battery pack, which can last up to 40 miles per charge. The gasoline engine is for generating electricity to run the electric car motor, which moves the wheels. The company is putting its technology in brand new vehicles only, not used cars. When VIA Motors showed up at the Detroit auto show, its executives rattled off a list of things that people can do with vehicles that double as power generators, such as catering to outdoor parties and running outdoor concerts.
“Think of a 3-day camping trip where you have unlimited power with the car you drive into the woods with,” said Bob Lutz, a member of VIA’s board of directors and the former vice chairman of GM, during a press conference at the auto show.
The two VIA trucks PG&E has been trying out cost about $400,000 total, Meisel said. The trucks are the early version of what VIA plans to produce commercially later this year, Meisel said. The price for the trucks at “low volumes” should be in the $70,000 range, and it should continue to drop as production increases, he added. (electric motor conversion kits)
VIA isn’t the only company PG&E is turning to for converted hybrids with exportable power. The utility also is considering vehicles from Electric VehicleInternational, which turns beefier pickup trucks to plug-in hybrids. VIA’s truck delivers 15 kilowatts of exportable power and is working on boosting that to 50 kilowatts while Electric Vehicle (EV) International is working on trucks with 100 kilowatts of exportable power. Figuring out a good way to cool the equipment that generates and routes the power becomes a greater hurdle as the size of exportable power increases.
PG&E and other fleet owners are turning to companies that can do after-market conversion for now partly because major automakers have yet to introduce the plug-in hybrid version of the trucks that the fleet owners want to buy.(EV motors) But that day will come if consumers continue to show interest in electric cars (and the prices for them drop). When that happens, companies such as VIA Motors may find it difficult to compete, said Kevin See, an analyst with Lux Research.
“There may be a short-lived window for them to make their mark,” See said. “I wouldn’t expect their businesses to be long-term because of the competition that will enter the market. (EV motor)” MSD
Electric vehicle owners can get a charge in Media now By: Susan L. Serbin
Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
Media Borough has created another reason to make “Everybody’s Hometown” a destination. This time an initiative will make downtown the hometown for owners of electric vehicles (EV).
As only the third known location in Delaware County, Media has inaugurated a charging station in the municipal parking lot next to the Media Fire Department, across from Media-Upper Providence Library and one block from all that State Street has to offer.
The borough is participating in a pilot project for EV charging powered by 100 percent Pennsylvania wind energy. Borough officials and Community Energy, Inc. had the ribbon cutting recently, with attendance by representatives of the energy firm, Mayor Bob McMahon, Councilman Eric Stein, Environmental Advisory Council Chair Walt Cressler and several other borough staff member.
While the technology includes several cutting-edge elements, charging station operation is fairly simple: pull into the dedicated parking space (lot is between Jasper and Front streets just east of Jackson Street); plug the electric vehicle (EV) into the charger; dine, shop or attend to other borough business. In the span of an hour or two, EVs can be charged enough for at least several dozen miles.
“We are pleased to be partnering with Media Borough and the Media Fire Company as this becomes one of the first charging stations in the county,” said Jay Carlis, Vice President of Retail Marketing for Community Energy, Inc. based in Radnor. “This pilot project, funded by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, comes early in the electric vehicle transition. At the government level, Media has been a leader in environmental sustainability. This is a great location for residents and visitors.”
Carlis said there are electric vehicle (EV) charging stations in Radnor and Wayne and only a handful in the state, placing the borough in the forefront of the technology. To kick off the enterprise, he drove a Chevrolet Volt and hooked it up to demonstrate the virtual plug, charge and go technique.
Representatives from Thomas Chevrolet brought a second Volt. Amy Ercolani of Thomas said the dealership has sold several Volts, has one in stock, and expects the manufacturer to supply a small but steady stream of the model, which has a gasoline back-up capability. EVs are available from other automotive manufacturers as well.
Running at a 240-volt service, the public station works twice as fast as a charge from, for example, a home outlet which is generally half the volts. An hour charge is expected to cost $3.50 with Community Energy paying a fee to the borough for the actual electric used. The mileage value of a charge varies depending on the electric vehicle and road conditions, not unlike gas mileage. Not surprisingly, there are “apps” which can monitor the charge from mobile devices.
In the borough’s view, the station sends multiple signals about the alternative energy commitment which already includes a solar energy grid and wind-generated electricity purchase.
“I’m a strong supporter of renewable energy and any electric car conversion. I have solar energy at my home, so I’m not just talking theoretically,” said Stein, liaison to the Environmental Advisory Council. “It’s good for the economy, and good for the environment.” MSD Continued...
General Motors and Iberdola to study EV charging infrastructure in Spain, UK By: Sam Abuelsamid
Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
General Motors will be collaborating with Spanish energy company Iberdola on a feasibility study to determine the infrastructure needs to support electric car motor vehicles in Europe. Similar studies are underway already between automakers and utility companies in the United States and elsewhere. The two companies have a relationship through other EV projects being run by EPRI. Under examination will be the needs for private, residential, and commercial customers as well as for publicly-accessible electric vehicle plugs. Among the issues that need to be resolved are how rates will be determined for EV (electric vehicle) charging and billing mechanisms. The study will be focused in Spain and the UK. As long as a good electric auto motor and electric vehicle motor controller can be procured, of which both can be procured at D&D Motor Systems, inc., anyone can build an EV car. (Electric car motors kits) MSD
Chrysler Unveils Dodge EV By: Ray Wert - Jalopnik.com
Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
A Tesla-Like All-Electric Sports Car
Today on CNBC, Chrysler CEO Bob Nardelli revealed a Tesla -like all-electric performance sports car called the Dodge ev along with three other vehicles operating either partially or entirely on an electric powertrain. The four vehicles are Chrysler's ENVI electric car motor program, and include an extended -electric Chrysler minivan, a new "gated community" electric called "the peapod" and a Jeep Wrangler four-door. The ev (electric vehicle), the first of the four unveiled, not only operates entirely on plug-in power like the Tesla Roadster and appears to have similar performance numbers, also has some striking visual similarities with the Tesla. And why shouldn't it? While the Tesla's built on the Lotus Elise, the Dodge ev appears to be based on the Lotus Europa. (electric motor conversion kits)
Utilities: Grid can handle influx of electric cars By: AP
Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
Which draws more juice from the electric grid, a big-screen plasma television or recharging an EV (electric vehicle)?
The answer is the car. But the electricity draw by plasma televisions is easing the minds of utility company executives across the nation as they plan for what is likely to be an electric car conversion of much of the country's vehicle fleet from gasoline to electricity in the coming years.
Rechargeable cars, industry officials say, consume about four times the electricity as plasma TVs.
But the industry already has dealt with increased electric demand from the millions of plasma TVs sold in recent years. Officials say that experience will help them deal with the vehicle fleet changeover to EV's. (electric motor conversion kits)
So as long as the changeover from internal combustion engines to electric vehicles is somewhat gradual, they should be able to handle it in the same way, Mark Duvall, program manager for electric transportation, power delivery and distribution for the Electric Power Research Institute, said Tuesday.
"We've already added to the grid the equivalent of several years' production of EV hybrids," Duvall said at a conference on EV's (electric vehicles) in San Jose. "The utilities, they stuck with it. They said, 'All right, that's what's happening. This is where the loads are going, and we're going to do this."'
Automakers, such as General Motors and Toyota , are planning to bring EV motors to the market as early as 2010. But speakers at the Plug-In 2008 conference say it will take much longer for them to arrive in mass numbers, due in part to a current lack of large-battery manufacturing capacity. (electric motor conversion kits) MSD
A New (Good) Look for Electric Cars By: JACK LOSH / LONDON
Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
Electric cars or EVs (electric vehicles) have been around for almost 170 years, but it's not just the limitations of battery power that have thwarted their more widespread use. Since Scottish businessman Robert Anderson pioneered the first electric carriage in the 1830s, most EV's have lacked one of the key markers of auto success: good looks. Just take a look at La Jamais Contente, designed by Belgian Camille Jenatzy in 1899, or Billard and Zarpe's space-age oddity, the Elektra King (1961). Even today's EV models — the REVA, or Zaps Zebra — are proof that the best adjective to describe most electric cars remains quirky.
Now two new models show that green can be given a devastatingly cool makeover. Britain's Lightning GT and the U.S.-built Tesla Roadster both reach 60 m.p.h. in 4 seconds or less, their makers claim, with top speeds approaching 130 m.p.h. The Lightning GT - unveiled at London's International Motor Show last week and set to be available from the end of 2009 - sports an impressive, sleek and sexy design, drawing on Aston Martin's classic British look. Tesla, which launched its hot, little open-top two-seater a couple of years ago, has already sold out of the 2008 model and is eagerly taking reservations for 2009. Battery power has rarely, if ever, looked this good.
Converting gas-powered cars to electric By: Curt Merrill - CNN
Filed Under: Electric Vehicles -
Larry Horsley loves that he doesn't buy much gas, even though he drives his '95 Chevy S-10 back and forth to work each day. (Electric Car Conversion)
Horsley, a self-described do-it-yourselfer, simply plugs his EV motor(electric vehicle) truck into an electric wall outlet in his Douglasville, Georgia, garage and charges it overnight, instead of buying gasoline refined from mostly imported oil. Using electric motor conversion kits, many hobbyists are doing the same thing.
"If I can keep a dollar from going overseas, I'll spend two dollars," he said. The whole electric car motor conversion, including the truck and high performance EV motor, cost him about $12,000, which parts dealers say is about standard for an electric car conversion.
Another Atlanta-area tinkerer, David Kennington, converted his Honda Civic del Sol from gasoline to an EV for a different reason: "I'm a raging greenie," he said. (Electric Car Conversion)
Both Horsley and Kennington are fed up. They're among a growing number of Americans who are refusing to wait for big-car manufacturers to deliver a mainstream electric car, called EVs. Not only have they rebelled against the status quo by ripping out their gas-guzzling engines and replacing them with a zero-emission electric car motor, they say just about anyone can do an electric car conversion. As long as you get a good electric vehicle motor controller and electric auto motor, both can be purchased from D&D Motor Systems, Inc, you are well on your way. MSD
How to: Build a Fuel-Less, Solar-Powered Vehicle By: Collin
Dunn, Corvallis, OR, USA
Filed Under: General DC motor -
TreeHugger has recently covered the Solar
Sailor and solar-powered electric bike, but we've never seen anything quite like this. For the
serious DIYer, SolarVehicles.org
offers info, resources, advice and even blueprints for building your own solar-
powered vehicle. Most of the models are somewhere between a scooter and a
golf cart, and, according to the pictures on the site, they even work! It may not be
the kind of thing you'd want to take on the highway or even a busy street, but
they seem perfect for putting around town. Once built, the three and four-
wheeled vehicles go between 25 and 40 km/h (about 15 to 25 mph) depending on
the load/cargo and grade of the road. The site has all the info you'll need to build
your own, from wheels to solar cells to frames, so you can get yourself around
using the power of the sun.
Electric motors in karts: A Simple Guide By: nedfunnell @ DIY Go Karts - Forum
Filed Under: Go Kart -
To start: Electric motors- AC vs. DC I'll just put this plainly- you can't use an AC motor in a go-kart. Sure, it would be technically possible, and some electric cars use AC motors, but those are with $10k control systems. The reason is that AC is different from AC. AC stands for 'Alternating Current" and is what comes out of your wall socket. It's used because it transmits long distances better along wires (from the power plant to you) and doesn't electrocute people quite so badly. DC stands for 'Direct Current' and is what comes out of a battery. It's plain electricity, and it's what you want to use for a go kart.
To get more technical, AC is called 'alternating' because the polarity (the + and -) reverses- in the AC in your house, it happens 60 times per second. An AC motor needs this. Now, it is possible to make AC out of DC. Most people have seen inverters, which you can plug into you car's cigarette lighter and then plug in a laptop, blender, whatever. Why not just use one of those?
The answer is current, and power. For a good electric go-kart, your power demands are going to be around 1000 watts or more. 1000 watt inverters are available, but they wouldn't work- why not? Because of surge current. An electric motor is an 'inductive' load. Have you ever seen your kitchen lights dim when the refrigerator or microwave comes on? That's because those are both inductive loads, and inductive loads require a TON of power to start. Say some electric motor might need 250 watts when its running- to start under load (like a go-kart does) it might need 1000 or 1500 watts to start. Your 1000 watts kart motor starting under load might need 5000 watts. Go price a 5000 watter inverter. Yeah, you don't want to do that. You might think that maybe you can make it work even though some people say it's a bad idea- trust me, I'm one of those people who chases down bad ideas to see what will happen. Don't even bother.
So to be clear, you can't reasonably use any AC motor in a kart unless you want to go no further than your longest extension cord. That means don't bother with any motor marked AC or which comes out of a washing machine, belt sander, or anything that plugs in to the wall. There are two exceptions to this: treadmills and really loud power tools. Most treadmills use a 90v DC motor- the treadmill contains a rectifier which converts the AC to DC. Loud power tools like angle grinders and circular saws use a motor called a 'universal motors' which can operate on either AC or DC.
I wouldn't use either a treadmill or universal motor either. Why not? They are made for 90 to 120 volts (in the US) and not very powerful. While a treadmill motor might seem like it's powerful, consider that you're going to have to carry around at least seven batteries (of car battery size) to get enough voltage and power. It's the same as with the inverter- technically possible, but as a DIY go-kart maker, it's not what you want.
OK, that's all bad news. What's the good news? Well, there are plenty of DC electric go cart motors out there perfect for go-karts. What should you look for in a DC electric go cart motors?
1. Low voltage. The lower the voltage, the fewer batteries you have to carry around. Also, if the rated voltage is lower, you can overvolt the motor, which gives you more power. Say you get a 24v motor- you could run it on 36v and get a lot more power. Could you run it on 48v... or 72v? Yes... but for a very short time. 48v is probably the limit for a 24v motor (double is the rule of thumb for the limit) Why? Well, putting that extra voltage in a electric go cart motor causes extra current to flow, which is where your power comes from. This is a problem because the more current that flows, the hotter the motor gets- and when it gets too hot, it will burn up, explode, and leave you standed.
What happens is that the insulation in the electric go cart motor is rated for a certain lifetime (say 20 years) at a low temperature. If you double that temperature, that rating may drop to say, 1 year. If you get it really, really hot, it might fry in ten seconds. Don't overheat your motors.
You could do a 12v motor at 18v or 24v. You could do a 24v motor at 36 or 48v. You could do a 36v motor at 48v. I wouldn't put more than 48v in a kart for two reasons: weight (batteries are heavy, and 4 12v batteries is about as much as you want to carry around) and safety. 48v is high voltage for DC. A person with dry fingers can touch both terminals of a 12v battery and (probably) not fry themselves. However, do it with 120v house voltage, and you'll get a nasty shock. That's because it takes a certain amount of voltage to overcome your body (especially your skin) resistance. Once there's enough voltage to overcome that resistance, you're being electrocuted. It only takes 0.025 of one amp to stop your heart, and any battery will do that easily. If you're going to make an electric go kart, you need to educate yourself on electricity safety. I won't write that book here, but go read up on it- and don't put more than 48v in a kart unless you've had technician-level training. (Note: I'm not saying 48v is 'safe', but neither are go-karts)
Okay, safety lecture over.
Where can you find good motors for electric go karts?
D&D Motor Systems, Inc!!
The last thing I'll talk about with electric motors is their power ratings. There are two important things you need to know- electric motors are rated for continous power, meaning they can make that power all day, all night, for years on end. Gas engines are rated on instantaneous power, which is how much than can produce for a moment. Secondly, electric motors produce maximum torque (the force with which it spins the wheels) at zero RPM. Have you ever ridden a two-stroke dirtbike? All the power comes around 5000rpm, so you have to wait for the engine to get up to speed, THEN you get power. Electric motors are the opposite- you get all your acceration at the very start, and it tapers off linearly as you speed up. This makes for very fun take-offs if your batteries, controller, and motor are up to it.
What this means is that you have to think about electric power ratings differently. A Harbor Freight 6.5HP gas motor might be fun, but a 6.5HP electric motor is nearly 5000 watts (746W = 1HP) and will rip your face off and melt your batteries. Sweet. You can use much smaller HP rated electric motor than you would a gas motor, and have the same amount of fun.
So, how do you throttle an electric motor? You have three options: on/off control (likely to fry something), progressive on/off control with multiple batteries, and a controller. On/off control is where you just have a big switch (or more likely, a big relay or contactor) and you get full power as soon as your throw the switch. I wouldn't recommend this, as the surge power phenomenon which I mention above means that you're switching on a LARGE amount of current all at once, and quite frequently what this will do is actually weld the contacts of your switch in the closed position, which now means that you're sitting on a kart which is at full throttle and won't turn off. I know a person who tried something like this on an electric motorcycle and has the scars to prove it. Unless it's small motor and big big switch, I'd avoid this.
How about progressive on/off control? Simply, this means that you are switching on your batteries one at a time. Say you're running a 24v motor, and overvolting it to 36v. You'll have three 12v batteries, most likely. What you'll do is have three switches (relays). One will switch on the first 12v battery. The second will switch on both the first and second, giving you 24v. The last will switch all three batteries into the circuit, giving you full power. This is much less likely to kill you... as long as you wire everything up right. I won't draw up a diagram for you, but there are some out there to look up. I'll warn you that if you just draw one up, it's easy to wire things up such that you are dead-shorting a battery, which could weld your contacts cause the battery to explode if you are unable to break the circuit. Be careful. Be careful with this because your first battery to be switched on is going to drain much faster than your last battery. You will need to charge your batteries individually (not in series) and stop driving immediately when your performance with the first battery [/i]only[/i] starts to decline. You will permanently damage your batteries if you over-discharge them.
Lastly, you can use a controller. This is the best option, and predictably the most expensive. Your best bet is a golf cart controller. They are made for duty like this and don't require a special radio input like a brushless controller does (just a potentiometer, which is a simple electronic component). These can be had on ebay, and the brand you're likely to have luck with is Curtis. Do your research on your controller and make sure it's for a PMDC motor (Permanent Magnet, Direct Current) If it's for a series motor, that's OK (and series motors are OK to use) but you'll have to study the wiring diagram carefully and read up to hook everything up properly.
You can also find electric bike and scooter controllers, but these are likely to be too small to use for a 'fun' kart unless you're making something for your eight-year-old that weighs 60lb.
Lastly, you can get motor controllers for combat robots from the same site I linked to for the motors. These are a good option, but expensive again and require a home-made throttle, because they're meant to interface with a radio. This would be a good option if you found a cheap big DC motor and don't mind spending some $$$ to get to use it.
You may not overvolt controllers. The max nominal rating is the max rating, and that's it. A controller can be instantly destroyed if its voltage rating is exceeded, even more a moment. Manufacturers build in a little bit of leeway because a 24v battery bank will be more like 28v when it's fresh off of the charger, but the rated voltage is all you can use.
The last thing I'll talk about is batteries.
Unless you're more advanced than someone who needs the info in this post, you're going to use lead-acid batteries. This is the same technology as a car battery. Don't use car batteries, though, because they're the wrong type. There are two kind of batteries here- starting batteries and deep-discharge batteries. A car battery has to supply an enormous amount of current for about three seconds when you start the car, then spends the rest of its life either being charged by the alternator, or supplying a microscopic amount of current to keep your car radio presets in memory. Car batteries are built for this duty, and if you try to use them on a kart, you'll have fun for about ten minutes, then the batteries will die- and not just being discharged, they'll be permanently damaged. Don't try this unless you want to be disappointed or will be happy with a short-lived, expensive project. If you've got a stack of car batteries you could use them for testing, but that's about it. Also, car batteries contain liquid sulfuric acid, which can spill out more easily than you think. If it gets on you, it will make you go blind, burn you, refinance your mortgage at 10%, key your car, and punch you in the gut. Don't mess with acid.
By contrast, you want to be able to ride your cart for, say, 30-60 minutes drawing a moderate amount of current the whole time. For this, you need a deep-discharge battery. The only car batteries that are good for this are Optima Yellowtop or Bluetop batteries, or similar. They don't have liquid acid inside and are made for deep discharge. These are great batteries to use if you can afford them. You can find other lead-acid batteries called AGM, or Absorbed Glass Mat. These are like sealed lead acid (see below) except they electrolyte (acid) is absorbed up in fiberglass mats inside the battery, making them shock resistant. AGMs are typically high quality and high cost.
Also, you can use a sealed lead acid battery (SLA). These are great, and probably what I'd use. You'll be tempted to buy the small ones- they come in tiny, affordable sizes that are complete crap for kart use. You want the big ones. At minimum, 12Ah for a small scooter-motor kart ridden by your eight year old, and 18-30Ah or more for bigger karts. More battery is better 99% of the time. Until you get to the point that your kart has so much battery that it weighs the same as a brontosaurus, more batteries are going to help.
Why? Because of current, again. Karts require a lot of current. Small batteries put out a small amount of current happily, or a large amount of current, and then die immediately. If you don't want to be limited in performance and killing your batteries dead, use big batteries. The same way that overdischarging your batteries by running them completely flat will kill them dead, overdischarging by asking for too much current at once will quickly kill them.
On top of that, asking for lots of current will reduce how long you can ride- because of something called the Peukert effect, drawing a lot of power from a battery effectively reduces how long it will last. An SLA battery is generally rated at a 20-hour discharge rate. So it may have 18Ah of juice in it... but only if you ask for it slowly over 20 hours. If you ask for all of its juice in 30 minutes, you may only really get 10Ah out of it. (I pulled that number out of thin air). It's a pretty significant effect, though.
Okay, what are Ah? Ah stands for Amp-hours. If a battery is rated at 18Ah, it can put out one amp for 18 hours, or if you ignore the Peukert effect I just explained, 18 amps for one hour. Or 9 amps for 2 hours. Get it? You might also see batteries rated by 'RC' or Reserve Capacity. This is how many minutes the batteries will last at 25A discharge (that is, if your alternator gives out and you need your headlights and engine control unit). You can convert RC to Ah with simple math- if you're embarking on an electric kart build, figuring that one out should be something you can do.
What about CCA and CA? These are not ratings of how long a battery will last, or ratings that you will see on batteries that you want to use in a kart. Note above where I talked about starting batteries vs. deep discharge batteries. CCA stands for 'Cold Cranking Amps' and is a measure of how much current a battery can put put for just an instant when it's cold. (CA is the same thing, but not as cold- cold affect batteries) Generally, only starting batteries are rated for CCA or CA. There are some dual-use batteries that might be rated for CCA and still be deep-discharge, but these are more expensive and you can do better with a properly-sized deep-discharge battery. Big wheelchair batteries are super for most karts.
How do you charge your batteries? I'd recommend getting several normal 12v car battery chargers and charging each battery that way, or using one and doing each battery after the last. (That takes forever) If you can find one or afford one, a golf cart battery charger that matches your voltage is the best thing.
Some basic stuff to round it out: Wiring something in parallel means + to +, - to -. You'll get the same voltage, but more current and capacity. Wiring something in series mean + to -, and then you take your power off of the other + and -. You get more voltage (it adds) but no extra current or capacity.
Current measure how much electricity is flowing, like the rate of water through a pipe. Current is measured in amps.
Voltage measures how much electrical 'force' there is, like the pressure of water in a pipe. Voltage is measured in volts.
Power is a combination of the two, and is like measuring both- how much water is flowing through the pipe and with how much force. Power is measured in watts, and volts times amps equals watts. You can also go backwards- a 500 watt motor at 24v will need 500W divided by 24V = 20.8A theoretically but in practice will need more, due to efficiency losses. 70% is a fair estimate for motor efficiency, so really it'd be around 20.8 divided 70% (0.70) = 29.7A.
Okay, that's a good starting point for what you need to know for electric power systems on karts.
So you want to make a fun electric go-kart? Inclined to do overkill? Here's your recipe, pre-overkilled:
Get an electric golf cart motor, it will probably be 36v rated and lots of power. Get a 48v-rated golf cart controller and four Optima Yellowtop batteries. Strap this all to a frame of your preferred format and go have fun.
Want to make a fun little electric kart for your kid that's outgrown his powerwheels? (Or are you skinny?) Get one of those 900W scooter motors and run it at 36V instead of 24V, and use the 18Ah SLAs that are common for wheelchairs.
There you go. Go for it and make some cool electric karts. Post pics.
Newest Go-Kart Race Track: Inside The Local Mall? By: AOL Autos Staff
Filed Under: Go Kart -
Having trouble finding an open parking space at your local shopping mall? Here's one way to solve that problem with a electric go kart with go cart motors.
Starting from the road outside, two men simply drove the electric go kart through the parking lot and then proceeded inside the Destiny USA mall in Syracuse, New York, at speeds of up to 45 miles per hour. There's a bit of a catch – Bob Congel and Bruce Kenan own the place.
In a promotional stunt, the video above shows them both whipping through the semi-closed mall, in some cases, while onlookers stand aside, making a pit stop in the venue's food court for a beverage and a fender bender or two.
Their goal was to promote high-performance electric go cart motors store Pole Position Raceway, which recently opened in Destiny. Pole Position, an electric go kart company, has eight locations throughout the country, and intends to open more soon, including one slated to open in St. Louis.
The company used electric go cart motors so that it can eschew running traditional gas engines inside. "From a competition standpoint, our high-performance electric go karts accelerate quicker and handle better than any other indoor competition kart on the planet" the company said in a written statement on its website. An electric go kart is installed with go cart motors that provide way more torque than a comparable gas model. MSD
Club educates through electric vehicles By: Geoff Burns
Filed Under: Go Kart -
One club on campus is focusing on helping the environment by making electrical vehicles to promote clean and renewable fuel alternatives.
The University's Motor Sports Club is a student-run organization in which students can get hands-on experience with the latest technology and a chance to race electric go karts.
The club has been around since 1994 and has 20 students on roster.
Anthony Palumbo, adviser of the University's Motor Sports Club, said getting the experience of the reality-based program is something that cannot be learned in the classroom.
"One thing about motor sports above all other sports is that it's not only athletics participating, but people who can put stuff together with electronics," Palumbo said. "The beauty of the Motor Sports Club is that it's open to anybody with any major because the motor sports enterprise can utilize the experience of all majors."
The organization's program is funded by members, donations and marketing partners. (electric go kart)
"Last year we generated almost $20,000 of brand new money that did not come out of students' tuition," Palumbo said. "That money was used to buy and build the latest electric vehicle technology. We have state of the art technology here and my students get that experience."
President of the University's Motor Sports Club, Spencer Lee, said the program has recently converted into more of an environmental sustainability club.
"Last year was the year that we converted over to the electric go karts," Lee said. "Before we ran our carts on gas and ethanol."
Lee said there is a race called the Electrical Vehicle Grand Prix in Indianapolis the week after finals, which the club plans to complete in with their electric go kart. The go kart electric motors have more torque than there gas counterparts.
"What makes us different from other clubs is that we go out and actually compete in electric go kart races," Lee said.
One member of the Motor Sports Club, freshman Joseph Zbasnik, started participating in the electric go kart racing club during fall semester.
"Getting experience with the electrical technology and everything that goes into the design of the electric go kart is awesome," Zbasnik said. "Anyone can join. I'm learning new stuff in the club every day about the club and about how go cart motors work."
Go-Karts Are Coming To Somers Golf Center By: Megan Bard
Filed Under: Go Kart -
There is a chance that by the Fourth of July holiday travelers along Main Street will hear a faint whir coming from the Somers Golf Center.
The sound will be from new outdoor electric go karts whizzing around a 1,015-foot long concrete track that will be built at the rear of the property behind the existing 18-hole miniature golf course and batting cages.
Tuesday night, the Zoning Commission approved a special permit request submitted by 349 Main Street LLC, owner of the actvity center that also includes a driving range and Sonny's Restaurant.
Prior to voting on the request the commission held a 7-minute long public hearing, just enough time for Timothy Coon of J.R. Russo & Associates LLC, an engineering and surveying company based in East Windsor, to present the proposal and commissioners to ask for public comment - there was none.
The plan has already been approved by the wetlands commission and received a positive recommendation from the planning and conservation commissions, along with the health department official.
"We're excited to make it more of an amuzement center for the local region to enjoy. We want to make it more for the whole family to come out and fly around in these carts with an electric go-kart motor," Jonathan Murray said after the vote; Murray represents the owner.
In addition to the track, a small pit building will be constructed for maintenance and storage associated with the track and the 24 electric go kart(s). The go cart motors used are electric and have a ton more torque than a gas model. Go kart electric motors are inexpensive, quite, and have a lot of power.
The project is within the 100 year flood plain so compensatory storage will be created on the far side of the wetland, as approved by the wetlands commission.
The track will be pitched inward so that any runoff can be collected in a single location and go through a series of filters before being discharged to a wetland at the rear of the site.
When was the last time you took a spin on an electric golf cart track with electric go cart motors? MSD
Duo power up for kart race By: Nicola Weatherall, Sunday Sun
Filed Under: Go Kart -
TWO North students are on track to build an electric go kart that will reach a hair-raising 100mph. That a lot of power for a go kart electric motor.
What’s more, the duo will become the first British go-karters to compete in one of the world’s biggest racing tournaments.
Engineering students John Wood and Hayley Blythe, from Sunderland, are currently developing the electric go-kart motor and battery for the electric go kart, which will power their way to the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race.
Also known as the Indy 500, it is billed as America’s greatest spectacle in racing and is regarded as one of the most significant motorsport events in the world.
More than 400,000 racing enthusiasts attend the event every year and it is watched on television by millions of viewers across the globe.
This is the first time any vehicle outside the US has been invited to compete in Indianapolis Motor Speedway’s prestigious Electric Vehicle Grand Prix – or evGrandPrix.
This year’s Indy 500 is particularly special as it celebrates its 100th anniversary, but the evGrandPrix is a much more recent addition to the event schedule. (electric go kart)
John and Hayley, who are studying at Sunderland University, have been set the challenge to design, build and race a fast and energy-efficient electric go kart over 100 laps. The go kart electric motors are very quiet but very powerful.
They were invited to compete after a visit to Purdue University in Indiana during a conference with the Society for Motor Manufacturers and Traders.
On race day, it will be Hayley behind the wheel of the electric go kart and she’s determined she can cut it in a man’s sport with her high performance go kart electric motors.
Dave Baglee, project coordinator at Sunderland University, who’ll be joining the students at the event, added: “John and Hayley are excited at the thought of showing off their electric go kart skills. We have a great car with an incredible electric go-kart motor and a strong team spirit, and real potential to compete well and finish in a top position.”
The evGrandPrix will take place on May 7, 2011. MSD
Electric-kart inventor hopes to inspire more By: DAVID BRO
Filed Under: Go Kart -
After President Barack Obama said early in his presidency that we, as a nation, must start building things again, San Clemente real estate broker George Fortin went to work to build an electric go kart from scratch in the garage of his Talega home with a high performance electric go-kart motor.
In November, a year and $4,000 later, he finished the 20-horsepower, zero-emission vehicle he calls the Z-Kart.(electric go kart) It uses six lead-acid batteries and has a range of 20 miles at speeds of 40 to 50 mph, depending on the gearing installed. With a frame built from recycled polyethylene, it weighs about 300 pounds and can be charged from a regular household electrical outlet in about three hours, Fortin said.
Fortin, 55, said he was inspired not only by the words of the president but also a personal conviction to live "greener."
"If I can build this using common tools and stuff from local hardware stores, then think of what someone could build with better resources and an engineering degree," he said.
His parents learned quickly that no household appliance was safe from their son when he had a screwdriver in his hand. He took apart can openers and hairdryers and even made an electric scooter with the rotisserie motor from his dad's barbecue.
Fortin, who grew up in Diamond Bar, began "engineering" electric go karts when he was about 11, including secretly taking apart his dad's first gasoline lawn mower.
But he didn't get serious until he upgraded an old motorized minibike. He said all the adults in the neighborhood had off-road bikes and would regularly ride to the top of a particularly steep hill. Limited by the small motor on his minibike, he was unable to tag along. But he swapped his bike's 3-horsepower motor for a Briggs & Stratton 8-horsepower model, and soon he was on top of the hill.
"The (bigger) motor was all in pieces when I got it, and when I had it on the bike it was so big, the spark plug came up through the top of the seat. But I made it work," Fortin said. "Sitting on top of that hill ... it was my moment."
Fortin, who has no formal training in design or engineering, has never stopped making things, with dozens of self-propelled vehicles and electric go karts made and pulled apart again – always salvaging the parts to make something better. Trial and error has shown him what works and what doesn't, including gear ratios, chassis design, suspension and steering assemblies.
Fortin says he is driven by curiosity about how things work and making things people can use efficiently and safely.
"I am just a big kid," he said.
His first Z-Kart had spoked bicycle wheels, but when the motor torque and tight steering tests kept tearing the wheels off, he redesigned it using dune-buggy wheels with motorcycle tires, along with other refinements.
"I really want to use my story to support making the garage a breeding ground for new ideas," Fortin said. "Big corporate companies are too bogged down with stuff. The garage is a personal space free from negativity ... and politics, where a person with the passion and an idea can be creative. Apple and Microsoft did it."
Fortin said he has had about 155,000 hits on his YouTube videos featuring the Z-Kart, along with more than 4,000 emails from people inquiring about how to build an electric go kart themselves. He also has been contacted by San Clemente-based chassis maker Swift Engineering to possibly help take the Z-Kart to the next level with higher performance go kart electric motors. MSD
Go Karts: 7 Advantages of Electric Go Karts Over Gas By: D Swain
Filed Under: Go Kart -
Deciding to buy your child a go kart can be a difficult decision to make. If you have already decided to take the plunge, then you may be trying to decide whether gas or electric go karts are the better choice. Electric go karts have a number of advantages over karts powered by gas. This article will share with you those advantages.
Electric go karts are usually much cheaper than their gas counterparts. Karts powered by gas normally start around $400 or $500. You can find a lot of electric go karts that will only cost you a maximum of $200. Go kart electric motors are easy to find. D&D Motor Systems, Inc has plenty.
Go karts that rely on gas for power can be dangerous due to the fact that gasoline is extremely flammable. Most parents wouldn't be too thrilled with having their kids handling gasoline. Even kids can safely handle the batteries required by electric go karts. Also, most electric go karts have some form of electric go kart controller that allows the parent to control the electric go kart speed.
Everyone knows that burning gas releases toxic fumes into the atmosphere. For the environmentally conscious parent, electric go kartmotors are the perfect solution. In addition to helping save the Earth, your kid won't be breathing in any poisonous fumes while he's having fun in his new electric go kart.
The engine of gas powered go karts make a lot of noise when running. If you live in a relatively quiet neighborhood, this may cause problems with your neighbors. Electric go kart motors make considerably less noise.
Maintenance costs for go karts powered by gas can add up quickly. You will need a constant supply of fuel. In addition to this, gas engines are more susceptible to breakdowns and oil leaks. With electric go kart motors, you can simply recharge the battery time and time again. Also, electric go kartshave much less moving parts, so they are far less likely to break down. An electric go kart motor is very simple to get repaired.
Electric go kart motors usually are more efficient than gas go kart engines. Electric go kart motorseasily outperform gas powered karts in handling and performance. Also, electric go kartsare virtually impossible to tip over while cutting sharp corners like gas go karts are vulnerable to doing.
Easier to Start
With electric go kart motors, you just turn the key and press the pedal. Go kart electric motors have a ton of immediate torque. MSD
MOWER EXCHANGE: A new program could help you put a cleaner running lawn mower in your garage this spring By: Megan Reuther
Filed Under: Lawn Care -
It's time to trade in the snowblower for the lawn mower, and a new local program could help you put a cleaner running model in your garage.
It may not seem like you use a significant amount of gas mowing your lawn. But, the Environmental Protection Agency says cutting your grass contributes to about 5% of the nation's total air pollution. A program in Polk County is trying to change that with a lawn mower exchange.
All it takes is a push of a button and the pull of a lever for Office Specialist Gloria Walraven to start mowing the grass. She says, "You just clutch it, pitch it in, and away it goes." Walraven took a new Neuton electric lawn motor mower for a test push. She says, "This is very easy. I was really surprised."
The Neuton electric lawn motor mower isn't like most machines in central Iowa garages. Jeremy Becker, an engineer for Polk County's Air Quality Division, says, "It's all electric, low emissions, no gasoline."
He says the electric lawn motor mower is part of Polk County's first electric lawn motor mower exchange. People can bring an old working gas powered mower to Midwest Recovery Center in Bondurant to be recycled. Then, you'll get a coupon from the county to buy a battery powered electric lawn motor mower at a discounted rate. Becker says, "The whole premise is to get the less efficient, more polluting gasoline lawn mowers out of circulation and go to something with a little newer technology and less emissions."
Becker says the Air Quality Division monitors the air you breathe throughout the year and notices a spike in ground level ozone and particulate pollution when the weather turns warm. He says it happens for a variety of reasons, including lawn care equipment. The EPA says that can cause breathing problems, especially for the young, old and people with asthma. He says, "This is something the average person can do to help reduce air pollution levels." ELM (electric lawn motor)
Becker says the electric lawn motor mower exchange will make a modest difference at first. He says, "It's not going to make a big difference the first year. We're only looking to exchange about 30 to 35 lawnmowers." But, he says the program should make a bigger difference in the future. Becker says replacing one mower is equal to taking one car off the road for 10,000 miles. He says the division will track who uses the electric lawn motor mowers, and if the technology makes a difference. He says, "As the program grows from year to year, if we get up to 100 or 200 lawn mowers exchanged, then we'd see a significant reduction."
As for Walraven, she says she wouldn't mind pushing one of these around this summer. She says, "It was very easy to handle."
This is only for Polk County Residents. If you participate in the program, you can choose from two models. One costs $149. The other costs $209, after the discount. A grant from Metro Waste Authority and the county are paying for the program. MSD
Have you noticed? Spring has sprung (almost) and lawn care decisions need to be made. Go Green Wilmette has some useful information that may be helpful whether you renew old contracts, find new services, or plunge in and do it yourself.
Gas-Powered Lawn Equipment
Lawn equipment with gas engines generates high levels of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides, producing up to 5 percent of the nation’s air pollution. Pollutant levels are often higher in metropolitan areas where there is concentrated use of lawn equipment.
One gas mower emits 87 pounds of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, and 54 pounds of other pollutants into the air every year. One mower running for an hour creates the same quantity of pollutants as eight new cars driving 55 mph for an hour according to the Union of Concerned Scientists.
More than 17 million gallons of gas are spilled each year in the refueling of lawn and garden equipment—more oil than was spilled by the Exxon Valdez! In addition, 800 million gallons of gas are burned yearly by Americans mowing their lawns.
Gas-powered lawn equipment, especially gas blowers, used during the hot summer months contributes to ground level ozone when it is the highest, which aggravates respiratory conditions and throws all kinds of noxious substances into the air, according to the EPA. That is why Wilmette passed an ordinance to protect our health forbidding the use of gas-powered leaf blowers from May 15- September 30 on residential property. Be sure to inform your lawn service of that restriction.
Gas leaf blowers are just a part of the problem. If just 20 percent of U.S. homeowners switched to electric lawn motor mowers, 84,000 fewer tons of carbon monoxide would be emitted into the air each year, and the average user would save 73 percent in total energy costs. (www.greenseal.org) Many hobbyists are doing electric lawn mower converion so they are now using electric riding mowers or an electric lawn tractor. Many schools are now beginning to teach classes whereby they do an electric lawn tractor conversion by using an electric lawn motor. The concept is rather straight forward and more info is online on exactly how to complete the job. diy electric lawn mower MSD
Electric Lawn Mowers Beat the Gas Guzzlers at Their Own Game By: LuAnne Roy
Filed Under: Lawn Care -
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) calculates that a single gas lawn mower emits the same amount of volatile organic compounds in an hour as a car driven 350 miles. Multiply that times 54 million—the estimated number of Americans who mow their lawns every weekend—and it’s a staggering amount of toxic particles entering the atmosphere—some five percent of the nation’s total air pollutants. And because lawn mowers are used predominantly in hot months when ground-level ozone is the highest, they bring added misery to asthma sufferers.
And that’s just the toxins that get into the air. Each year, the EPA says that homeowners spill 17 million gallons of gasoline when refilling their lawn products, six million more gallons than the Exxon Valdez spilled into Prince William Sound in 1989.
The Electric Power Research Institute of Palo Alto, California, says that replacing one half of the nearly 1.3 million gas mowers in the U.S. with electric mowers would be the emissions equivalent of taking two million cars off the road.
Electric lawn motor mowers are not only better for the environment (because they create no exhaust emissions and run cleaner), they also need less maintenance (no spark plugs and belts) and are easier to use (no pull cord—just turn the key). On top of all that, they’re less expensive to run. The average Electric lawn motor mower uses the same electricity as an ordinary toaster, costing just $5 per year. The electrics also create considerably less noise pollution.
On the downside, Electric lawn motor mowers cost up to $150 more and are limited to use with smaller lawns; corded mowers are restricted by the 100-foot cord length and cordless mowers are limited to the runtime of their charge—30 to 60 minutes, depending on battery size. Corded mowers also carry the risk of running over the cord, although top models guide the cord to the side of the handle to prevent that. And cordless mowers can present an environmental hazard if their lead-acid batteries are not disposed of at a recycling facility.
According to consumer ratings, Black & Decker leads the pack. Consumer-search.com reports that B&D’s corded model, MM 875 ($230), is “maintenance- free” and has a one-lever height adjustment that’s easy to maneuver. Its cordless model, CMM 1200 ($400), does a better job than most corded electric mowers, plus mulches more effectively and cuts more evenly. Other corded models that fared well are the Craftsmen 37051 ($220), and the Homelite UT13120 ($200), that reportedly has the widest cutting deck (20 inches) of all electric mowers, as well as the highest maximum cuttings available.
As for cordless models, Consumer Digest rates the Neuton Cordless Mower ($400) higher than B&D, mostly due to its lighter 48-pound weight, its whisper-like hum and its “reel” mower, which cuts the grass at a diagonal angle that’s considered healthier for the grass.
Most of the major mower companies make electric mowers, as do many smaller manufacturers, including Sun-lawn, Neuton, Homelite, Yard Machines and Worx. The difficulty is finding stores that carry them. Locally, Home Depot carries one brand—Homelite. Nick Redwood, department manager of Lowes in Orange, Connecticut, says his store sells a maximum of four different models. The Black & Deckers are the most popular, but Redwood says customers rarely ask for electric mowers. He sells only one for every 20 gas mowers.
Bill Moore, webmaster for EV-world.com, has owned a Black & Decker CMM1000 for three years and says he had to resort to the Internet to find an electric mower because there were none on showroom floors where he lives in Omaha, Nebraska.
He now says he’d never go back to using a gas mower. “It was tiring,” he says. “I can’t prove it medically, but the Electric lawn motor mower doesn’t produce the same level of fatigue; it’s not spitting out a quart of fuel and giving off exhaust fumes.” The one drawback, Moore says, is that he occasionally needs to make an extra pass because the blade of his B&D is 19 inches, compared to the 20- or 21-inch blade of most gas mowers.
John Longo of Milford, Connecticut stopped into Lowes on a recent Saturday to purchase his second electric mower. He says he bought his first 10 years ago, kept it for seven years, then went back to a gas mower. “It’s a man thing,” he jokes, “I went for more power.”
But Longo says he couldn’t deal with the mess and noise. The clincher for both Moore and Longo is the simplicity of use. “The Electric lawn motor mower is always there, ready to go,” says Moore.
LUANNE ROYis the listings editor of the Fairfield County Weekly. She lives in Seymour, Connecticut. (diy electric lawn mower, electric lawn tractor conversion, electric riding mowers) MSD
Nemo found near old Camaro factory site By: Domenick
Filed Under: LSV (Low Speed Vehicle) -
The recent lifting of the low speed vehicle (LSV) ban in Quebec has shone the
light of discovery on another electric vehicle manufacturer
getting ready to go gangbusters. In Ste.-Therese, Quebec, very close to where
the Chevrolet Camaro plant was once located, sits the home of Nemo. Locally designed and
manufactured, their vehicle, the Must HD2 has garnered interest from 50
municipalities within "La Belle
Province" as well as from individuals. Company president, Jacques
Rancourt, says they've sold 15 trucks in the past week and a half since their
legal status changed and now expects to move 500 units this year.
The Must HD2 sells for around $20,000, is built on an aluminum chassis and
can handle a 1,000 lb payload. Being an LSV, it's limited to 25 miles an hour but
has a 70 mile range. Since it's made in the North, it does has a robust heater and
many options ranging from lithium ion batteries to an AM/FM radio with CD
player. We think it's a pretty cool looking truck, seemingly capable of handling a
range of chores and so we wish the makers of this little brute, "Bonne
Heres how Donald Trumps moves on coal could affect the industry By: Associated Press business staff
Filed Under: Mining -
In this 2016 file photo, a haul truck with a 250-ton capacity carries coal from the Spring Creek strip mine near Decker, Mont. President Trump's latest move to support coal mining is unlikely to turn around the industry's prospects immediately. Experts say the biggest problem faced by the mining industry today isn't a coal shortage of coal or even the prospect of climate change regulations, but an abundance of cheap natural gas. (Matthew Brown/AP File Photo)
BILLINGS, Mont. (AP) -- President Donald Trump's move to roll back Obama-era regulations aimed at curbing climate change came as the coal industry is reeling from bankruptcies, pollution restrictions and growing competition from natural gas, wind and solar.
The White House said the order, signed Tuesday, will trigger a review of the Clean Power Plan, which seeks to reduce power plant emissions, and will rescind a moratorium on the sale of coal mining leases on federal lands.
Here's a look at how the moves will affect the coal industry across the country and in Ohio:
AN INDUSTRY IN DECLINE
Trump's move to support coal mining is unlikely to turn around the industry immediately.
Experts say coal's biggest problem isn't a shortage of the fuel to dig or even climate change regulations but cheap and abundant natural gas. Gas prices dropped as advances in drilling such as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, greatly increased the amount of gas on the market. For many utilities, that's made gas a more attractive fuel than coal.
U.S. coal production fell to 739 million tons last year, the lowest level in almost four decades. From 2011 through 2016, the coal mining industry lost about 60,000 jobs, leaving just over 77,000 miners, according to preliminary Labor Department data that excludes mine office workers.
Data for Ohio 2016 coal production is not yet available, but the previous 15 years are. The reports from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources shows a dramatic decline in production, though not quite as dramatic of a decline in employment.
In 2015, Ohio was ranked the 12th largest coal producer of the top 25 coal producing states, the ODNR reported. Twenty companies operating 43 mines in 14 Ohio counties produced more than 16.9 million tons of coal, most of it used by power plants.
The average number of coal jobs in 2015 was 2,352, with 1,764 working directly in surface or underground mines. Surface miners earned a median wage of $57,202 while underground miners earned a median wage of $78,348.
In 2000, 44 Ohio companies -- more than twice the number in 2015 -- operated 113 surface and underground mines in 21 Ohio counties and produced nearly 22.5 million tons of coal for power plants.
The average number of Ohio coal jobs in 2000 was 2,717, with 1,640 jobs directly tied to production. The average annual wage for surface mine workers was $39,171, and he average annual wage for underground miners was $53,898.
Christian Palich, president of the Ohio Coal Association, said Trump's actions means "a much brighter future for the coal industry."
Still, companies have gotten more efficient at extracting coal, meaning fewer workers are needed to dig a given amount of fuel. Mountaintop removal mining, in which hilltops in Appalachia are blasted off with explosives to expose coal seams, is less expensive and more automated than underground mining. So are the massive strip mines developed since the 1970s in Wyoming and Montana, where conveyor belts move coal for miles across the open landscape to load onto trains.
Coal's share of the U.S. power market has dwindled from more than 50 percent last decade to about 32 percent last year.
In Ohio coal-fired power plants generated about 59 percent of the electricity last year, according to the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. Gas was used to generate about 23 percent of Ohio's power in 2016, nuclear about 14 percent and renewables about 2.28 percent.
Gas and renewables have both made gains across the nation, and hundreds of coal-burning power plants have been retired or are scheduled to shutter soon -- trends over which Trump has limited influence.
In Ohio, one gas turbine plant -- owned by American Municipal Power -- is generating electricity. There are currently four gas turbine plants under construction. Another six gas turbine plants are currently planned for Ohio and are expected to begin generating power between 2019 and 2021.
Utilities "are not going to flip on a dime and say now it's time to start building a whole bunch of coal plants because there's a Trump administration," said Brian Murray, director of environmental economics at Duke University's Nicholas Institute.
SHOULD THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIZE COAL?
The Obama administration blocked the sale of new coal leases on federal lands in January 2016 to determine if the government's coal program was shortchanging taxpayers and exacerbating climate change by effectively subsidizing coal.
In some cases, coal companies bought leases for as little as 1 cent per ton under a program that's supposed to be competitive but often involves just a single bidder. The royalties these companies pay to the government on each ton of coal mined have remained unchanged since 1976.
Under the moratorium, the Obama administration was considering raising royalty rates as much as 50 percent. Trump has put that proposal on hold.
On Feb. 16, the president overturned a rule that blocked coal mining debris from being dumped into nearby streams, a low-cost disposal method used in mountaintop removal in Appalachia.
Collectively, Trump's recent orders put the brakes on Obama-era actions would have made it more costly for companies to get coal from public lands and for utilities to burn the fuel.
About 40 percent of coal produced in the U.S. comes from federal land in Western states. Companies operating in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, the nation's dominant coal region, control enough reserves to last 20 years.
Even before the moratorium, many mining companies were going bankrupt. They have voluntarily delayed their plans to lease tracts holding 1.5 billion tons of coal, including public lands not covered by the moratorium, according to Interior Department records reviewed by The Associated Press.
That's enough fuel to run the nation's coal-fired power plants for two years at current consumption rates.
The eight-state Appalachian region once dominated coal mining but now accounts for less than 25 percent of production after hundreds of mines there closed. Mines in the Midwest and South also have seen declines.
THE CARBON BALANCE
Lease applications blocked by the Obama moratorium included more than 1.8 billion tons of coal from two dozen mines.
Burning that coal would unleash an estimated 3.4 billion tons of carbon dioxide. That's equivalent to a year of emissions from 700 million cars. And that is just a small portion of the federal government's coal reserves.
Environmentalists say keeping those reserves in the ground is crucial to the global effort to minimize climate change.
Cloud Peak Energy CEO Colin Marshall described Trump's executive orders on coal as an important step toward lifting the "punitive and ill-conceived" regulations under President Barack Obama. The moratorium had blocked the company's applications to lease more than 200 million tons of coal in Montana.
Yet Marshall said more will be needed from Congress for the industry to survive long term, such as investments in so-called clean coal programs under which utilities could capture carbon from burning coal to keep it out of the atmosphere.
In Ohio, Robert Murray, chairman, president and CEO of Murray Energy -- which accounts for about half the coal mined in the state, issued a statement in which he said he and his employees are "extremely pleased."
"We are extremely pleased that President Trump has, once again, followed through on his promise to preserve coal jobs and low cost electricity in the United States.
"Indeed, President Obama and his supporters closed 411 coal-fired power generating units, totaling 101,000 megawatts, all for absolutely no environmental benefit."
Murray, whose company was the first to file suit against the Clean Power Plan, said the plan would have forced the closing of of more power plants and increases in power prices.
The action, he said, "will preserve the jobs and family livelihoods of thousands of coal miners, the jobs and family livelihoods that depend on them, and low-cost electricity."
-- Plain Dealer energy reporter John Funk contributed to this report.
The 2017 Mining Sector Economic Forecast By: Dale Benton
Filed Under: Mining -
In 2016, the mining industry saw an increasing number of companies with market caps rising above 50 million for junior players, a huge number after years of declining market caps and de listing for juniors.
That’s just one of the big takeaways from the 2017 mining outlook survey, from Pedersen and Partners. The survey looked at what issues of concern in predicting the economic outlook for the mining sector in 2017, and asked 114 executives across the Canadian mining sector for their say.
“The outlook for 2017 is still very much subject to change, given current geopolitical complexities in resource rich countries such as the US, South Africa, Brazil. Venezuela, Vietnam and Indonesia, to name a few,” says the report.
“In spite of this, or perhaps even because of this, the general climate seems to be one of increasing optimism,”
Here are some of the biggest takeaways from the survey:
Increasing number of companies with market caps rising above 50 million for junior players in 2016, after several years of declining market caps and de-listings for juniors. This follows several years of seeing large numbers of juniors with market caps under 15 million.
The overall perspective appears to be one of cautious optimism, with most respondents predicating that 2017 will be an improvement over 2016, with only six percent expecting further economic contraction and 57 percent expecting to see growth in the sector
The perception is that this is an auspicious time in the market cycle to make acquisitions, but a difficult time to secure the necessary capital. However, we have recently seen an increase in M&A, with 45 percent of respondents expecting M&A to be a part of their growth strategy this year, 35 percent saying it would be a possibility if the right opportunity arose and only 19 percent ruling it out.
Securing resources, nationalism, skills shortages, infrastructure access and cost inflation are the highest concerns moving forward in 2017.
Respondents fear that the weakened growth in emerging markets will cause pressure on commodity values and margins, and result in the less access to new sources of financing. However, many feel that this will create more opportunities to acquire assets during the low price cycle.
Although regulatory requirements are increasing globally in the exploration and mining sectors, 54 percent of this respondents do not expect it to affect their operational strategy, while 26 percent do, and 20 percent are unsure.
Despite the fact that market caps and share prices are down across the board, 28 percent indicate they will be hiring new employees, 5 percent indicate that will be bringing back staff that were laid off, 50 percent will maintain their current staffing levels, and only 15 percent suggest they will be restructuring.
Many of the junior companies with the lowest market caps will disappear or seek mergers in order to increase capital. As a result, the number of publicly traded companies in the sector will be greatly reduced over the next year, which should in turn benefit some of the larger juniors with strong projects and healthy market caps.
As far as environmental sustainability and risk mitigation are concerned, most respondents (42.9 percent) considered the matter best handled at the executive team level, while almost a third (30.1 percent) would designate a special Board Committee to deal with these issues. One-fifth of respondents (21.9 percent) preferred to retain external consultants to examine these issues.
Almost two-thirds of the executives surveyed (62.3 percent), see the continuation of current exploration programmes as the best way to access new deposits over the next year, while only 21.9 percent would rely on acquisitions. 15.8 percent would consider restarting dormant exploration projects or bringing mins that are currently in care and maintenance back into production.
Filed Under: NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) -
Electric cars have been called “the next big thing” many times in the past, thanks to their quiet motors, clean (nonexistent) exhaust, and the ubiquity of electric power in every other part of our lives.
Remember how executives at General Motors, back in 1980, were predicting that by 1990, fully 10% of that company’s product line would be powered solely by electric power? A decade later, GM built a state-of-the-art electric car, the EV-1, to meet the mandates of CARB (California Air Resources Board). Later, they literally destroyed the EV-1, allowing a few to survive in places such as the Peterson Museum in Los Angeles.
Chrysler Corporation, for its part, built a rather cleverly engineered electric minivan starting in 1993; most were sold to utilities and other fleets, but some were also sold to individuals. Many people managed to buy a Chrysler electric minivan (“TEVan”) second-hand, at auction, and rolled around in quiet style for years afterwards, because the NiCad batteries in early models could be replaced with new units (an automatic watering system kept the batteries alive for around 100,000 miles, after which they could be recycled). A later version, called EPIC, was sold starting in 1997; it had double the voltage of the first one, extending the range past 50 miles, and switched to an advanced lead-acid battery pack. Chrysler had also worked on electric cars back in the 1970s, producing (in cooperation with Jet) a four-passenger electric city car, which were purchased by some organizations but apparently never officially sold. Likewise, the Neon was originally to be sold in diesel and electric versions.
Even more prescient, or at least more determined, was the Tag 2 group in Livonia, Michigan, a group of engineers that produced their first electric vehicle in 1992. Mike Hofer, a North Dakota businessman, recognized the potential of the little car, and assembled a group of investors. He then purchased the company and moved the entire operation to Fargo in December of 1997. The result was GEM, or Global Electric Motorcar, which is still being built in Fargo, North Dakota, as what is a wholly owned subsidiary of Chrysler LLC.
The Fargo factory manufactured its first vehicle in April 1998. The 48-volt GEM could accommodate two passengers and had a top speed of just 20 miles per hour; however, less than two months later, a breakthrough in market conditions occurred when NHTSA (National Traffic Safety Administration) designated a new class of motor vehicles: the low speed vehicle called the neighborhood electric vehicle.
While a neighborhood electric vehicle didn’t have to go faster than 35 mph, the NHSTA did require some things: a safety glass windshield, turn signals, mirrors, windshield wipers, headlights, taillights, and seat belts. The idea behind the neighborhood vehicle was to address both air pollution and urban sprawl; the latter was based on the theory that if you increased density in the city, there’d be less of the population going outside of the city to live. Those living in the denser environs of the city would probably want transportation other than the bus sometimes. That’s where neighborhood electric vehicles would come into play.
In November of 1998, the first utility version of the GEM was produced. These became part of the fleet of utility vehicles at Luke Air Force based, the largest fighter pilot training facility in the world, near Phoenix, Arizona; as of 2001, there were 100 GEM vehicles in service at Luke, out of a fleet of 831 vehicles.
By the end of 1999, total production reached 1,826 vehicles; and by the end of June 2000, the monthly output had surpassed 500 vehicles. By the end of December 2000, total production had hit 5,000 vehicles.
At that time, a past Chrysler executive joined up with a competing electric-car company. Some claim it was out of spite that DaimlerChrysler quickly acquired GEM; others claim that it was, as DaimlerChrysler said, a matter of building zero-emission vehicles to supplement the slow, expensive research into hydrogen power. By then, no less than 37 states had accepted NHTSA’s ruling on low speed vehicles as legal of city streets.
By 2001, the GEM line of vehicles included both two and four passenger electric vehicles, as well as two utility vehicles with short and long boxes. The curb weight of the two passenger machine was just 1,100 pounds, including batteries; while the curb weight of the long box utility vehicle was just 140 pounds more.
Power was the same for the GEM fleet: a 72 volt shunt General Electric motor and six, industrial 12-volt batteries. But the major selling point was the proprietary 72-volt DC on-board charger, which employed the standard 110-volt AC house current.
GEM Motorcars LLC held an Environmental Solutions Summit in Anaheim, California in 2001. Larry Oswald, who was then CEO of GEM as well as a PhD in aerospace engineering, said that he saw his company’s vehicles as “the early stages of a long range view towards a fuel cell future.”
At that time, we drove the GEM cars at a ride-and-drive event. They had plenty of torque, a hallmark of electric vehicles, and good handling, partly because of the independent front suspension and rear trailing-arm suspension. Rack and pinion steering gave a precise feel; having the batteries close to the ground probably helped the stable feel. The width of just 55 inches was akin to – well, a golf cart. The range of these vehicles was about 30 to 35 miles, dependent upon ambient temperature and terrain, enough for local grocery shopping or even typical commuting; when stopped, the GEMs consume barely any power, so stop and go traffic is not a problem.
The rise of the price of oil has only helped GEM. As of July of this year, shipments have jumped 30% from last year's second quarter, with some of its 150 dealerships around the country tripling their sales, according to the Wall Street Journal.
While the vehicles still look essentially the same, there have been some major improvements since Larry Oswald’s presentation. Oswald himself has retired, and Bruce Coventry is now the chief operating officer of GEM Motorcars LLC. Rick Kasper has since replaced Ken Montler, GEM’s President; he holds a degree in electronic engineering technology from the University of Washington.
The battery pack in the current GEM vehicles is the gelatin type, with low maintenance. The steering geometry has been reworked to allow even more precise steering; and the responsive of the electric motor is better. There are even performance upgrades for GEM cars and utility vehicles. The 7 horsepower performance package – yes, “performance” package – includes scoops, a heat sink, and chrome emblems.
Pricing now ranges from $6,795 for a basic two seater to a high of $17,995 for a six passenger vehicle with a truck that looks akin to something such as the add-ons you might see on a vintage motorcar of the 1920s or 1930s.
Mike Nickoloff, commercial fleet and GEM sales manager for Star Chrysler Jeep & GEM in Glendale, CA said, “The demand has generally been more steady, with no big spike. But this summer, we saw a 50% increase. Orange County and San Francisco, places that are friendlier to electric cars, have done even better. There’s a 12 month unlimited warranty; and an additional service contract buys a person another 36 months of (warranty) service. The nice thing is you can call the manufacturer up in Fargo. It’s a lot easier than trying to connect with a zone service rep for Chrysler.
“I sell maybe three or four GEM cars a month; and I usually ship them on a flatbed to my clients. In fact, I’m taking one over to San Marino, the high rent district, tomorrow.”
If you’re wondering what the next step is for urban transportation, this may be it. But that’s not to say there aren’t hurdles to overcome.
“We need infrastructure, “ admitted Joan Michelson, spokesperson for GEM, in a recent phone interview. While there is still a proprietary on-board charger for GEM cars, they do, after all, have to plug into something. “We need charging stations as ubiquitous as gas stations.”
Utilities appear happy with cars like the GEM, since they even out their demand (indeed, the Edison companies were proponents of electric cars in the early 1900s). Normally, utilities see peak demand during the day, and they need to have extra powerplants to fill that demand; but those plants often sit idle at night, an apparently needless expense. The ideal would be to either have less demand during the day (prime air conditioning, industrial use, and computer use times), or more at night. Overnight GEM recharging would provide additional utility revenue without additional capital expense.
The newest GEM line is the Peapod, designed to have an iPod appearance along with integrated iPod and iPhone controls; this model was introduced in 2008 and is a substantial upgrade to the past line.
Filed Under: NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) -
BIGGER D&D Motor Systems electric motor- Some "must know" information.
So you want to change out the original 5 hp electric motor and up it to the 7.5 hp D&D Motor Systems electric motor option? Chances are you want to boost up the top speed, and avoid having those lines of traffic build up behind you in the 35 mph zones!
I RECOMMEND THAT YOU DO NOT UPGRADE THE electric motor UNTIL YOU HAVE UPGRADED THE WHEELS AND TIRES TO NO-LESS-THAN 14" TIRES.
STEP 1- D&D Motor Systems electric motor selection.
Although there are several sources online that have D&D Motor Systems electric motors available, I would strongly recommend that you purchase the D&D Motor Systems electric motor from a supplier with a strong history and a verifiable reputation. Through suggestions and research, one company I would strongly recommend would be ride-4fun.com. Ensure you do not procure and non-Blue colored motor which illsutrates that its the true US made D&D Motor Systems electric motor. You will understand why as we go. When selecting a supplier, verify "new or rebuilt", the manufacturer, (ie: General Electric), and warrantee /return policy. Also, check on the shipping rates. Some parts suppliers have hidden "processing and handling fees" for certain parts that can be extremely expensive. Also, check on rebates for returning the core. If there is not, you may consider selling the original GE electric motor on line to help offset the cost of a new D&D Motor Systems electric motor, typically around $800-. When you get the new D&D Motor Systems electric motor, please review the instructions included with the D&D Motor Systems electric motor, and inspect it for damage from shipping. Keep the D&D Motor Systems electric motor in the box, to prevent any damage from falling, until physically installing the D&D Motor Systems electric motor.
STEP 2- Removal of the old GE electric motor.
It is extremely important that all due caution be used when servicing your GEM. First and foremost, turn the main power control switch to "off" and use wheel chocks on the rear tires. Use the manufacturer recommended jacking points to lift the front right of the vehicle until the tire is just off the ground. Place a proper jack stand under the frame in the jacking point nearest the front right tire without blocking the end of the electric motor. Remove the tire, and set it aside.
First, note the polarity and position of the power cables as they relate to the D&D Motor Systems electric motor, then remove the cables from the D&D Motor Systems electric motor. Make sure to protect the cable ends! Next you will need to identify and then remove the mount bolts. (D&D Motor Systems has a great video on this process.) When you are pulling the D&D Motor Systems electric motor out of the trans-axle, note the general position of the landmarks on the old D&D Motor Systems electric motor, as the new D&D Motor Systems electric motor will need to go back into the trans-axle in relatively the same position. This is very important, to prevent possible damage to your new D&D Motor Systems electric motor.
Inspect the GE electric motor end for excessive wear, chips or metal shavings, which could indicate that your trans-axle may need service BEFORE installing the new D&D Motor Systems electric motor. If there is no sign of damage, proceed with the next step.
Clean both the bolts and sockets for the D&D Motor Systems electric motor mounting. You will use "Lok-tite" or a similar product when installing the new D&D Motor Systems electric motor...always...
STEP 3- Installation of the new D&D Motor Systems electric motor.
Remember to orient the new D&D Motor Systems electric motor landmarks to relatively the same position as the old GE electric motor came out. The D&D Motor Systems electric motor should slide back in with ease. If there is resistance, DON'T FORCE IT! Re-adjust the D&D Motor Systems electric motor by gently turning the body back and forth, with GENTLE pressure until the D&D Motor Systems electric motor slides in easily. Support the D&D Motor Systems electric motor until you have the D&D Motor Systems electric motor mounting bolts back in place. Be sure to not over tighten the bolts. Keep the bolts evenly torqued, and visually inspect the D&D Motor Systems electric motor position before connecting the power cables. Once you have re-connected the power cables, double-check your work before remounting the tire and lowering the vehicle to the ground.
STEP 4- Test the D&D Motor Systems electric motor.
Turn the main power switch back "on". Operate your vehicle for a few minutes to ensure that the D&D Motor Systems electric motor engages, no unusual noises are heard, and the D&D Motor Systems electric motor operates smoothly. Now, PARK IT! You aren't quite done!
STEP 5- Remove the control unit.
Your control unit is programmed to handle the 5hp D&D Motor Systems electric motor, and although your vehicle will run with the old programming, it is not running as it needs to. DO NOT attempt to continuously operate your vehicle without reprogramming this unit. (D&D Motor Systems includes reprogramming with the cost of the D&D Motor Systems electric motor!)
If you purchased your D&D Motor Systems electric motor from D&D Motor Systems, there is an information sheet you must fill out and include with your control unit when you ship it to them at the address provided on the form.
Remember to follow the instructions on the video on their website. Always turn the main power "off" before performing any service on your vehicle.
Once you receive the re-programmed control unit, install it in the same position, and complete all steps before turning the main power switch back "on".
WHAT HAVE YOU ACCOMPLISHED?-
Your stock 5hp GE electric motor is designed and programmed to perform at 5hp peak power for approximately 30 minutes. The D&D Motor Systems electric motor with reprogrammed control unit is configured to operate at 7.5 hp for 30 minutes. The increase torque to the wheels provides more efficient operation, added to the 14" tires, you can expect as much as 35 mph, and better handling.
Filed Under: NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) -
The pope who wears
Prada has a new set of chic custom wheels.
Pope Benedict XVI, who
has made headlines with his high-style red designer loafers and his Gucci
shades, is tooling around the grounds of Vatican City in an electric car outfitted
in luxurious Natuzzi Italian white leather. His latest fashion statement was
donated to the pontiff by Global Electric Motorcars (GEM), a subsidiary of
DaimlerChrysler, and Natuzzi.
"It was a very special project and an
honor to be involved in it," said Daniel Tranchini, chief global sales and
marketing officer for Natuzzi, the world's largest manufacturer of leather
upholstery, calling us from the International Furniture Fair in Cologne,
The car, which bears a vague resemblance to a golf cart,
has the papal seal on the front and back and was made for short hops behind the
walls of Vatican City. No word on whether there is a papal putting green out
Buchanan calls for bipartisan effort to convert nation to "green" energy By: Domenick Yoney
Filed Under: NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) -
Vern Buchanan (R), the Congressman
representing the Sarasota, FL area, is one politician who sees the "green" light.
While visiting with solar and electric car maker, Cruise Car Inc,
whose manufacturing and sales operation is in his district, the lawmaker made a
plea for a national bipartisan effort to make the switch from fossil fuels to more
environmentally-friendly energy sources. Speaking to the company's employees
and assembled media, Buchanan said, "My sense is we've been misled as
Americans in many ways for the last 25 years in terms of our energy and where
we're going to get it. Solar, alternate energy, all that stuff is possible; it'll create
jobs, it'll make a difference."
Proof of that difference was all around
him. While obviously not the transportation solution for everybody, Cruise Car is
doing a booming business. There's a 60 to 90 day waiting list for some of their
vehicles, which can go up to 62 miles on a charge and are powered by the sun,
though they can be plugged in for extra charging if necessary. The company is
doubling its 10 employees this year and will be moving to a new facility (and
doing more hiring) to keep up with an exponential increase in demand. Hopefully,
more of our representatives will open their eyes to the many benefits of a greener
economy and make the changes needed to speed things along.
Phillipine police roll on patrol in a NEV By: Domenick Yoney
Filed Under: NEV (Neighborhood Electric Vehicle) -
The price of gas is getting out of hand everywhere. Ok, maybe not
Venezuela, where its cheaper than our bottled water at ¢15 a gallon, but
almost everywhere else, it's expensive. In the Philippines its so costly ($4.50
gallon in a country where, according to the Philippine National Statistics Office, the
average household income is about $4,000 USD a year) that the Philippine
National Police (PNP) has started testing neighborhood electric vehicles (NEV)
with the goal of putting them into regular action.
vehicle can accommodate 4 adults and comes with a police light bar and "Polis"
markings. There are no gears to shift, so operation is simple. With a top speed of
30 km/h (slow) they won't be involved in any high-speed chases but they're still
adequate for routine patrols and providing police visibility. The force is also
considering implementing bicycles.
Beer Run: We Test the PedalPub, a 16-Person Alcohol-Fueled Party Bike By: MIKE SUTTON
Filed Under: Party Bike | Pub Bike | Rail Car -
When bored, horses often chomp down on a fence post and suck air. One theory holds that this gives them a buzz. Another holds that this is baloney. But whether or not horses get lit, horsepower certainly can. And that is the purpose of a pedal tavern.
Known by a variety of names, a pedal tavern is a multi-rider bike built around a bar. The HandleBar, in Indianapolis, runs a fleet of four bikes, each a PedalPub, which is a brand imported from the Netherlands and claimed to be the original bar bike. Ten pedalers sit around the perimeter, and there are spots for six passengers and one (presumably sober) driver. Many places forbid imbibing while pedaling, but PedalPubs run in 28 cities around the U.S.—including Indianapolis, which has no open-container law.
On a brisk Tuesday recently, we went with 10 pedalers to Indy. Our crew consisted mostly of sedentary types, but it included one who had just finished his third Ironman and one who grunted a lot and was weirdly comfortable with the phrase “my spin class.” With our group and a 25-gallon cooler of beer aboard—we always test with a full tank of fuel—the rig weighed 4376 pounds. That explains the automotive-grade brakes. Our bike also had a Volvo rear axle and a VW steering wheel. Its owners, brothers Brian and Stephen Lindsay, say that chassis parts are different on each of their bikes.
Bring Out Your Hipsters: The PedalPub’s two-shaft, single-ratio setup ensures that all pedalers operate in sync.
Our ride started with acceleration testing. We went just an eighth of a mile before our winded, half-stewed pedalers threatened to get off. From our 9-mph trap speed, we can extrapolate that our pedaling crew didn’t make much horsepower. We touched 12 mph briefly, then we experienced terminal foot float, a sort of redline in which feet fly off the pedals. Also, we were gasping.
We then settled into a relaxed 5-mph tour of the city. Cruising faster than that or climbing a hill can get tough, and working hard while drinking hard seems like a recipe for vomiting. But many feet make light work, and as a team-building activity, this one’s hard to beat. The HandleBar is a novel way to see a city and a fun means of staying busy as you get buzzed. As our blood-alcohol content crept up, so did our cruising speed and the volume of our voices, the former reaching 7 mph and the latter nearing obnoxious. (The Lindsays agree that bachelorette parties are the worst.) Tours book in two-hour chunks, and with time running low, we tried one last top-speed run down a gentle grade. The speed readout flickered past 12 mph, and then the world went dark. Maybe we blacked out. Or maybe we entered a tunnel and lost the GPS signal. Nobody seems to remember.
Party Buses: A PedalPub is about a foot shorter than a GMC Yukon XL Denali but holds nearly twice as many people. The two aren’t similar in any other way, either.
Lasers already help police spot speeders; soon, they could identify drunk drivers, too. A team of Polish researchers has developed a roadside laser to detect alcohol vapor. They aim across the road a laser with a wavelength that is absorbed by the vapor. As cars pass through the beam, any drop in laser strength indicates the presence of booze on an occupant’s breath.
Most efficient all-electric railcar competition won by Swedes By: Stephen Edelstein
Filed Under: Party Bike | Pub Bike | Rail Car -
Eximus 1 electric railcar at Delsbo Electric 2016
Engineering students who want to set new efficiency records for cars can enter contests like the Shell Eco Marathon or World Solar Challenge.
But there's also a competition for those who prefer vehicles that ride on rails, rather than travel on roads.
Competitors in the Delsbo Electric contest work toward the goal of building the most efficient battery-electric rail vehicle possible.
Held on a stretch of tourist-railroad track near the town of Delsbo, Sweden, it's open to college students.
This year, the winner was a sleek silver railcar called Eximus 1, entered by a team from Sweden's Dalarna University.
Eximus 1 achieved an efficiency rate of 0.84 watt-hours for every kilometer traveled by each passenger, which is a record for a rail vehicle, Delsbo Electric organizers told Gizmag.
Eximus 1 electric railcar at Delsbo Electric 2016
Looking a bit like a scaled-down version of classic U.S. streamlined trains from the 1950s, Eximus 1 weighs just 100 kilograms (220 pounds), and is powered by a 500-watt (0.67-horsepower) electric motor.
It's made mostly from aluminum to save weight, but with steel wheels like a typical railcar.
Delsbo Electric contestants have their entries' efficiency measured over a 3.36-kilometer (2.09-mile) stretch of standard Swedish railroad track.
Eximus 1 completed the course in roughly 20 minutes, but only used its motor for only 110 seconds of that time.
With steel wheels on steel rails, trains have have relatively little friction to deal with compared to cars, and Eximus 1 took advantage of this by coasting for long stretches.
Delsbo Electric entrants must also be able to carry one to six passengers, with a minimum average weight of 50 kilograms (110 pounds) per person.
Since efficiency is calculated per person, vehicles that carry more people are not inherently penalized.
Two BNSF locomotives hauling coal trains meet near Wichita Falls, Texas
The vehicles demonstrated at Delsbo Electric take efficiency to the extreme, but another technology under development may be more applicable in the real world.
Trains have used electric power—from overhead wires or a current-carrying third rail—since the early 20th century.
Now researchers at Britain's University of Sheffield are trying to equip them with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability similar to what has been proposed for electric cars.
Next clean-energy transport: a solar-powered electric railcar? By: John Voelcker
Filed Under: Party Bike | Pub Bike | Rail Car -
Tourist railroads are one of the unexpected pleasures of travel.
Usually operating on trackage that railroads no longer need, they offer low-speed rides through scenic vistas, including locations that tourists often can't reach by car.
But along with historic railcars on many lines come older engines, usually powered by diesel engines decades old without a single piece of emission-control equipment.
Enter the Börzsöny solar-powered electric passenger railcar.
As noted earlier this month in the Railway Gazette, the experimental railcar has a top speed of 16 miles per hour (25 km/h) and is intended for use on a 7.5-mile (12-km) line from Kismaros to Királyrét in Hungary.
It seats 32 people, and its roof is covered with 106 square feet (9.9 square meters) of photovoltaic solar cells.
Photovoltaic solar power field at Volkswagen plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee
These charge a battery pack of unspecified capacity, though it is said to be sufficient for four or five uphill trips along the line.
The returning leg, downhill, requires little energy, although the article doesn't mention whether regenerative braking is used to recapture the car's otherwise wasted momentum on the return trip.
The battery can also be plugged into the electric grid to recharge overnight.
The solar electric rail car is roughly 27 feet long and 6.6 feet wide, running on 760-mm (2.5-foot) gauge rail track, a narrow-gauge standard used in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire and known as the "Bosnian gauge."
The frames and mechanical parts of the solar railcar were supplied by Börzsöny 2020. The electrical systems were provided by Hungarotrain, while GanzPlan contributed documentation.
How To Check Your Golf Cart for A bad Solenoid By: Hubpages
Filed Under: Solenoids -
In this article as you may have guessed I am going to explain how to check a solenoid for problems. First you will need a couple of tools, a voltmeter and typically a ½” wrench.
On a typical solenoid there are four post called terminals. There are usually two large and two small. Battery voltage is applied to the two small terminals to activate the solenoid which then connects the two large terminals together. From time to time the two large terminals get buggered up and the solenoid needs to be replaced. To check the solenoid is fairly simple though.
First thing we need to do is disconnect any cables from the two large terminals. Be sure to wrap the cable ends in tape and keep them separate from each other. Then set your voltmeter to OHMS and place a probe on each large terminals(see first image below). With the key off and the cart in a neutral position there should be no reading. Now with the cart in foreword position and key on step on the accelerator, you should hear a click coming from the solenoid, if you do then set you voltmeter to OHMS and place a probe on each large terminals(see second image below). You should have a reading of 0 to 0.4 ohms. Anything higher and it means that solenoid has buggered up contacts and should be replaced.
If you did not here a click coming from your solenoid then grab your voltmeter and set it to dc volts on the 200 scale and place a probe on each of the small terminals. With the key on and the cart in foreword step on the accelerator. You should see pretty close to full battery voltage. If you do see full battery voltage and there is no click, the coil inside the solenoid has failed and will need to be replaced. If your meter remains at 0 then there is a problem somewhere else in the cart.
NOTES: When buying a new solenoid besure to buy one that matches your carts voltage, most golf carts are either 36v or 48v. It will usally tell you on the side of the solenoid what voltage it is. If you use the D&D Motor Systems Choosing A Motor tool then you can be assured to get the right parts every time.
How do I tell if my Golf Cart Solenoid is not working? By: Internet Forum
Filed Under: Solenoids -
Next to batteries, the most misunderstood part of a gas or electric car is the Golf Cart Solenoid. A Golf Cart Solenoid is nothing more than a switch. Switches are normally mechanically activated devices similar to a light or key switch. These types of switches require manual or mechanical activation. Golf Cart Solenoids are just switches activated by an external electrical input. It does not matter whether its a Club Car Solenoid or an EZ-GO Solenoid, a Golf Cart Solenoids sole purpose is to make and break an electrical circuit on demand. The term "contactor" is also used to describe a Golf Cart Solenoid. A Golf Cart Solenoid has two basic circuits, the Primary and Secondary circuit. In the Primary, or activation circuit, you have two components, the activation wiring and the internal primary coil. When subjected to electric voltage the internal primary coil activates, bringing two contact points together to allow an electric current to pass through the Secondary circuit. The coil requires both the positive and negative potentials for electric voltage to pass through it and activate. Most cars activate the Golf Cart Solenoid with normal battery pack voltage. However, be aware there are some older model cars that use a system of "tapped" voltage and the Golf Cart Solenoids must be connected to a specific voltage. Taps are just different connecting points on the battery pack. The Secondary, or power circuit, is the circuit being activated by the Golf Cart Solenoids coil. This circuit consists of large power contacts inside the Golf Cart solenoid that allow a heavy load of electric current to flow to the motor or starter/generator when activated. Any time you are working with a car's electrical system, be sure you have the correct wiring diagram for the application you are testing! In the accompanying diagram, the connection terminals on the Golf Car Solenoid have been numbered 1 though 4 for ease of identification purposes only.
In the diagram, there are some other items that may or may not be on your car system, a diode and resistor. Not all applications use the diode and resistor, and that is why it is important to determine the year, make, and model of your car.
The diode functions as a buffer to catch voltage spikes in the Primary circuit. The resistor (250 ohms) is used to pre-charge the capacitor bank in the car controller if it uses this system. The resistor will connect to the Secondary circuit's large terminals. Again, use the correct diagram for the system you are working on.
How do I trouble shoot my solenoid? By: Internet Forum
Filed Under: Solenoids -
1) The car will not run.
A) Does the Club Car Solenoid or EZ-GO Solenoid make a "clicking" sound?
If it doesn't, we must first determine if activation voltage is present at the small terminals #1 and #2. Connect a voltmeter across the connections at #1 and #2 and activate the system. To activate the system put the car in the run mode, key switch on, car in forward and the accelerator pedal pushed. If your voltmeter displays the system voltage and the solenoid does not "click", then the solenoid is defective and will need to be replaced.
Make the connection just like this. B) The Golf Cart Solenoid does not "click" and you do not read system voltage. This tells us that one of the voltage potentials is missing at connection #1 and or #2. To find out which potential is missing, leave the red lead of the voltmeter connected on terminal #2, the positive connection (usually a blue or red wire). However, wire colors may vary. Ensure proper diagnosis by using the correct diagram for the make and year of your car. Place the black lead of the voltmeter to the battery's negative post on the number six battery (the last battery in series from the first positive battery connection to the car). Activate the system as before, if your voltmeter reads system voltage, the positive input is correct. This means the key switch, micro switches and wiring are good and you are missing the negative input. (Club Car Solenoid)
Positive connection at terminal #2. Continue the diagnosis process by connecting the black negative lead from the voltmeter to terminal #1 and the red lead of the voltmeter to battery #1's positive post (the first positive connection to the car). Activate the system again. If you are not reading system voltage on your voltmeter, you have confirmed that the battery negative is missing. Depending on the system the car is using, the missing negative will need to be traced to its source. Some systems supply the negative from a controller output (or with some Club Car Solenoid, the onboard computer). Most gas cars use the frame as "ground". Electric cars do not use a frame "ground". You can determine the car's ground point by referring to the correct wiring diagram.
Negative connection at terminal #1. So let's say that we were missing the positive at connection terminal #2. This means either the key switch, micro switch and/or accelerator switch is open or out of adjustment. NOTE: Be aware that some cars use the key circuit as a negative circuit and adjust accordingly as per the correct wiring diagram. You will need to trace voltage to each individual component in that circuit and determine where the voltage is lost.
If your car uses the diode in the solenoid system, make sure you make the proper connections and orientation as the diode is polarity-sensitive! This is different between the Club Car Solenoid and the EZ-GO Solenoid.
Secondary Circuit (power) 1) If the Golf Cart Solenoid does "click" and the car will not run. Disconnect the cable from terminal #4 and lay it aside. Tape the end so it doesn't come into contact with any part of your car. Cable 4 will be the load side of the solenoid that connects directly to the controller/motor circuit. If the car uses a 250-ohm resistor, remove and tape the end of that as well.
2) Place the positive lead of the voltmeter on the vacated #4 terminal. Place the negative lead of the voltmeter to battery #6's negative post. Activate the system. If your voltmeter does not display system voltage, the secondary circuit's contacts are defective and the solenoid will need to be replaced. If you do read system voltage on your voltmeter the problem with your car is somewhere in the controller, motor, wiring/cables, shifter and/or input control, such as an inductive throttle sensor, potentiometer, or v-glide.
3) If the Golf Cart Solenoid does not "click" and the car runs all the time with the key on or off. Connect the voltmeter as per step number two. If you read system voltage without pushing the accelerator pedal and key off the solenoid is defective. This means the secondary contacts are stuck in the "on" position and the solenoid needs replacement.
Safety 1) Raise the rear wheels off the ground using the proper support stands BEFORE you begin your Golf Cart Solenoid testing.
2) Disconnect the battery/battery pack when required for testing. If the car is a regenerative system, place the run/tow switch in the tow position before you disconnect the batteries.
3) If you have a proclivity towards being a pyromaniac, make sure you know where the closest fire extinguisher is!
4) Use extreme caution with higher voltage cars as severe burns can occur by accidentally shorting out connections with a hand tool.
5) Golf Cart Solenoids testing should be done in a well-ventilated area and extreme caution used around the batteries as hydrogen gas may be present.
6) Keep all flames and sparks away from the battery compartment and keep battery acid away from your skin and eyes as this can be a irritant.
There you have it! The solenoid is not some complicated mystery. Just think of it as just any other switch you may encounter that it is electrically activated.
What Is a Shunt or SEPEX Motor? By: National Instruments
Filed Under: Specialty DC Motors -
Electrical Diagram of a Shunt Motor
The shunt motor is different from the series motor in that the field winding is connected in parallel with the armature instead of in series. You should remember from basic electrical theory that a parallel circuit is often referred to as a shunt. Since the field winding is placed in parallel with the armature, it is called a shunt winding and the motor is called a shunt motor. Figure 12-13 shows a diagram of a shunt motor. Notice that the field terminals are marked Fl and F2, and the armature terminals are marked Al andA2. You should notice in this diagram that the shunt field is represented with multiple turns using a thin line.
FIGURE 12-13 Diagram of DC shunt motor. Notice the shunt coil is identified as a coil of fine wire with many turns that is connected in parallel (shunt) with the armature.
FIGURE 12-14 Typical DC shunt motor. These motors are available in a variety of sizes. This motor is a 1 hp (approximately 8 in. tall).
The shunt winding is made of small-gauge wire with many turns on the coil. Since the wire is so small, the coil can have thousands of turns and still fit in the slots. The small-gauge wire cannot handle as much current as the heavy-gauge wire in the series field, but since this coil has many more turns of wire, it can still produce a very strong magnetic field. Figure 12-14 shows a picture of a DC shunt motor.
Shunt Motor Operation
A shunt motor has slightly different operating characteristics than a series motor. Since the shunt field coil is made of fine wire, it cannot produce the large current for starting like the series field. This means that the shunt motor has very low starting torque, which requires that the shaft load be rather small.
When voltage is applied to the motor, the high resistance of the shunt coil keeps the overall current flow low. The armature for the shunt motor is similar to the series motor and it will draw current to produce a magnetic field strong enough to cause the armature shaft and load to start turning. Like the series motor, when the armature begins to turn, it will produce back EMF. The back EMF will cause the current in the armature to begin to diminish to a very small level. The amount of current the armature will draw is directly related to the size of the load when the motor reaches full speed. Since the load is generally small, the armature current will be small. When the motor reaches full rpm, its speed will remain fairly constant.
Controlling the Speed
When the shunt motor reaches full rpm, its speed will remain fairly constant. The reason the speed remains constant is due to the load characteristics of the armature and shunt coil. You should remember that the speed of a series motor could not be controlled since it was totally dependent on the size of the load in comparison to the size of the motor. If the load was very large for the motor size, the speed of the armature would be very slow. If the load was light compared to the motor, the armature shaft speed would be much faster, and if no load was present on the shaft, the motor could run away.
The shunt motor's speed can be controlled. The ability of the motor to maintain a set rpm at high speed when the load changes is due to the characteristic of the shunt field and armature. Since the armature begins to produce back EMF as soon as it starts to rotate, it will use the back EMF to maintain its rpm at high speed. If the load increases slightly and causes the armature shaft to slow down, less back EMF will be produced. This will allow the difference between the back EMF and applied voltage to become larger, which will cause more current to flow. The extra current provides the motor with the extra torque required to regain its rpm when this load is increased slightly.
The shunt motor's speed can be varied in two different ways. These include varying the amount of current supplied to the shunt field and controlling the amount of current supplied to the armature. Controlling the current to the shunt field allows the rpm to be changed 10-20% when the motor is at full rpm.
This type of speed control regulation is accomplished by slightly increasing or decreasing the voltage applied to the field. The armature continues to have full voltage applied to it while the current to the shunt field is regulated by a rheostat that is connected in series with the shunt field. When the shunt field's current is decreased, the motor's rpm will increase slightly. When the shunt field's current is reduced, the armature must rotate faster to produce the same amount of back EMF to keep the load turning. If the shunt field current is increased slightly, the armature can rotate at a slower rpm and maintain the amount of back EMF to produce the armature current to drive the load. The field current can be adjusted with a field rheostat or an SCR current control.
The shunt motor's rpm can also be controlled by regulating the voltage that is applied to the motor armature. This means that if the motor is operated on less voltage than is shown on its data plate rating, it will run at less than full rpm. You must remember that the shunt motor's efficiency will drop off drastically when it is operated below its rated voltage. The motor will tend to overheat when it is operated below full voltage, so motor ventilation must be provided. You should also be aware that the motor's torque is reduced when it is operated below the full voltage level.
Since the armature draws more current than the shunt field, the control resistors were much larger than those used for the field rheostat. During the 1950s and 1960s SCRs were used for this type of current control. The SCR was able to control the armature current since it was capable of controlling several hundred amperes. In Chapter 11 we provided an in-depth explanation of the DC motor drive.
The armature's torque increases as the motor gains speed due to the fact that the shunt motor's torque is directly proportional to the armature current. When the motor is starting and speed is very low, the motor has very little torque. After the motor reaches full rpm, its torque is at its fullest potential. In fact, if the shunt field current is reduced slightly when the motor is at full rpm, the rpm will increase slightly and the motor's torque will also in-crease slightly. This type of automatic control makes the shunt motor a good choice for applications where constant speed is required, even though the torque will vary slightly due to changes in the load. Figure 12-15 shows the torque/speed curve for the shunt motor. From this diagram you can see that the speed of the shunt motor stays fairly constant throughout its load range and drops slightly when it is drawing the largest current.
FIGURE 12-15 A curve that shows the armature current versus the armature speed for a shunt motor. Notice that the speed of a shunt motor is nearly constant.
FIGURE 12-16 Diagram of a shunt motor connected to a reversing motor starter. Notice that the shunt field is connected across the armature and it is not reversed when the armature is reversed.
Reversing the Rotation
The direction of rotation of a DC shunt motor can be reversed by changing the polarity of either the armature coil or the field coil. In this application the armature coil is usually changed, as was the case with the series motor. Figure 12-16 shows the electrical diagram of a DC shunt motor connected to a forward and reversing motor starter. You should notice that the Fl and F2 terminals of the shunt field are connected directly to the power supply, and the Al and A2 terminals of the armature winding are connected to the reversing starter.
When the FMS is energized, its contacts connect the Al lead to the positive power supply terminal and the A2 lead to the negative power supply terminal. The Fl motor lead is connected directly to the positive terminal of the power supply and the F2 lead is connected to the negative terminal. When the motor is wired in this configuration, it will begin to run in the forward direction.
When the RMS is energized, its contacts reverse the armature wires so that the Al lead is connected to the negative power supply terminal and the A2 lead is connected to the positive power supply terminal. The field leads are connected directly to the power supply, so their polarity is not changed. Since the field's polarity has remained the same and the armature's polarity has reversed, the motor will begin to rotate in the reverse direction. The control part of the diagram shows that when the FMS coil is energized, the RMS coil is locked out.
Installing a Shunt Motor
A shunt motor can be installed easily. The motor is generally used in belt-drive applications. This means that the installation procedure should be broken into two sections, which include the mechanical installation of the motor and its load, and the installation of electrical wiring and controls.
When the mechanical part of the installation is completed, the alignment of the motor shaft and the load shaft should be checked. If the alignment is not true, the load will cause an undue stress on the armature bearing and there is the possibility of the load vibrating and causing damage to it and the motor. After the alignment is checked, the tension on the belt should also be tested. As a rule of thumb, you should have about V2 to 1/4 inch of play in the belt when it is properly tensioned.
Several tension measurement devices are available to determine when a belt is tensioned properly. The belt tension can also be compared to the amount of current the motor draws. The motor must have its electrical installation completed to use this method.
The motor should be started, and if it is drawing too much current, the belt should be loosened slightly but not enough to allow the load to slip. If the belt is slipping, it can be tightened to the point where the motor is able to start successfully and not draw current over its rating.
The electrical installation can be completed before, after, or during the mechanical installation. The first step in this procedure is to locate the field and armature leads in the motor and prepare them for field connections. If the motor is connected to magnetic or manual across the line starter, the Fl field coil wire can be connected to the Al armature lead and an interconnecting wire, which will be used to connect these leads to the Tl terminal on the motor starter. The F2 lead can be connected to the A2 lead and a second wire, which will connect these leads to the T2 motor starter terminal.
When these connections are completed, field and armature leads should be replaced back into the motor and the field wiring cover or motor access plate should be replaced. Next the DC power supply's positive and negative leads should be connected to the motor starter's LI and L2 terminals, respectively.
After all of the load wires are connected, any pilot devices or control circuitry should be installed and connected. The control circuit should be tested with the load voltage disconnected from the motor. If the control circuit uses the same power source as the motor, the load circuit can be isolated so the motor will not try to start by disconnecting the wire at terminal L2 on the motor starter. Operate the control circuit several times to ensure that it is wired correctly and operating properly. After you have tested the control circuit, the lead can be replaced to the L2 terminal of the motor starter and the motor can be started and tested for proper operation. Be sure to check the motor's voltage and current while it is under load to ensure that it is operating correctly. It is also important to check the motor's temperature periodically until you are satisfied the motor is operating correctly.
If the motor is connected to a reversing starter or reduced-voltage starting circuit, their operation should also be tested. You may need to read the material in Section 15.3.6 to fully understand the operation of these methods of starting the motor using reduced-voltage methods. If the motor is not operating correctly or develops a fault, a troubleshooting procedure should be used to test the motor and locate the problem.
When a DC shunt motor develops a fault, you must be able to locate the problem quickly and return the motor to service or have it replaced. The most likely problems to occur with the shunt motor include loss of supply voltage or an open in either the shunt winding or the armature winding. Other problems may arise that cause the motor to run abnormally hot even though it continues to drive the load. The motor will show different symptoms for each of these problems, which will make the troubleshooting procedure easier.
When you are called to troubleshoot the shunt motor, it is important to determine if the problem occurs while the motor is running or when it is trying to start. If the motor will not start, you should listen to see if the motor is humming and trying to start. When the supply voltage has been interrupted due to a blown fuse or a de-energized control circuit, the motor will not be able to draw any current and it will be silent when you try to start it. You can also determine that the supply voltage has been lost by measuring it with a voltmeter at the starter's LI and L2 terminals. If no voltage is present at the load terminals, you should check for voltage at the starter's Tl and T2 terminals. If voltage is present here but not at the load terminals, it indicates that the motor starter is de-energized or defective. If no voltage is present at the Tl and T2 terminals, it indicates that supply voltage has been lost prior to the motor starter. You will need to check the supply fuses and the rest of the supply circuit to locate the fault.
If the motor tries to start and hums loudly, it indicates that the supply voltage is present. The problem in this case is probably due to an open field winding or armature winding. It could also be caused by the supply voltage being too low.
The most likely problem will be an open in the field winding since it is made from small-gauge wire. The open can occur if the field winding draws too much current or develops a short circuit between the insulation in the coils. The best way to test the field is to remove supply voltage to the motor by opening the disconnect or de-energizing the motor starter. Be sure to use a lockout when you are working on the motor after the disconnect has been opened. The lockout is a device that is placed on the handle of the disconnect after the handle is placed in the off position, and it allows a padlock to be placed around it so it cannot be removed until the technician has completed the work on the circuit. If lockout has extra holes, additional padlocks can be placed on it by other technicians who are also working on this system. This ensures that the power cannot be returned to the system until all technicians have removed their padlocks. The lockout will be explained in detail in the chapter on motor controls later in this text.
After power has been removed, the field terminals should be isolated from the armature coil. This can be accomplished by disconnecting one set of leads where the field and armature are connected together. Remember that the field and armature are connected in parallel and if they are not isolated, your continuity test will show a completed circuit even if one of the two windings has an open.
When you have the field coil isolated from the armature coil, you can proceed with the continuity test. Be sure to use the R X 1k or R X 10k setting on the ohmmeter because the resistance in the field coil will be very high since the field coil may be wound from several thousand feet of wire. If the field winding test indicates the field winding is good, you should continue the procedure and test the armature winding for continuity.
The armature winding test may show that an open has developed from the coil burning open or from a problem with the brushes. Since the brushes may be part of the fault, they should be visually inspected and replaced if they are worn or not seating properly. If the commutator is also damaged, the armature should be removed, so the commutator can be turned down on a lathe.
If either the field winding or the armature winding has developed an open circuit, the motor will have to be removed and replaced. In some larger motors it will be possible to change the armature by itself rather than remove and replace the entire motor. If the motor operates but draws excessive current or heats up, the motor should be tested for loose or shorting coils. Field coils may tend to come loose and cause the motor to vibrate and overheat, or the armature coils may come loose from their slots and cause problems. If the motor continues to overheat or operate roughly, the motor should be removed and sent to a motor rebuilding shop so that a more in-depth test may be performed to find the problem before the motor is permanently damaged by the heat.
What Are Series DC Motors? By: National Instruments
Filed Under: Specialty DC Motors -
Series Motor Diagram
The series motor provides high starting torque and is able to move very large shaft loads when it is first energized. Figure 12-10 shows the wiring diagram of a series motor. From the diagram you can see that the field winding in this motor is wired in series with the armature winding. This is the attribute that gives the series motor its name.
Since the series field winding is connected in series with the armature, it will carry the same amount of current that passes through the armature. For this reason the field is made from heavy-gauge wire that is large enough to carry the load. Since the wire gauge is so large, the winding will have only a few turns of wire. In some larger DC motors, the field winding is made from copper bar stock rather than the conventional round wire used for power distribution. The square or rectangular shape of the copper bar stock makes it fit more easily around the field pole pieces. It can also radiate more easily the heat that has built up in the winding due to the large amount of current being carried.
FIGURE 12-10 Electrical diagram of series motor. Notice that the series field is identified as S1 and S2.
The amount of current that passes through the winding determines the amount of torque the motor shaft can produce. Since the series field is made of large conductors, it can carry large amounts of current and produce large torques. For example, the starter motor that is used to start an automobile's engine is a series motor and it may draw up to 500 A when it is turning the engine's crankshaft on a cold morning. Series motors used to power hoists or cranes may draw currents of thousands of amperes during operation.
The series motor can safely handle large currents since the motor does not operate for an extended period. In most applications the motor will operate for only a few seconds while this large current is present. Think about how long the starter motor on the automobile must operate to get the engine to start. This period is similar to that of industrial series motors.
Series Motor Operation
Operation of the series motor is easy to understand. In Fig. 12-10 you can see that the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding. This means that power will be applied to one end of the series field winding and to one end of the armature winding (connected at the brush).
When voltage is applied, current begins to flow from negative power supply terminals through the series winding and armature winding. The armature is not rotating when voltage is first applied, and the only resistance in this circuit will be provided by the large conductors used in the armature and field windings. Since these conductors are so large, they will have a small amount of resistance. This causes the motor to draw a large amount of current from the power supply. When the large current begins to flow through the field and armature windings, it causes a strong magnetic field to be built. Since the current is so large, it will cause the coils to reach saturation, which will produce the strongest magnetic field possible.
Producing Back EMF
The strength of these magnetic fields provides the armature shafts with the greatest amount of torque possible. The large torque causes the armature to begin to spin with the maximum amount of power. When the armature begins to rotate, it begins to produce voltage. This concept is difficult for some students to understand since the armature is part of the motor at this time.
You should remember from the basic theories of magnetism that anytime a magnetic field passes a coil of wire, a current will be produced. The stronger the magnetic field is or the faster the coil passes the flux lines, the more current will be generated. When the armature begins to rotate, it will produce a voltage that is of opposite polarity to that of the power supply. This voltage is called back voltage, back EMF (electromotive force), or counter EMF. The overall effect of this voltage is that it will be subtracted from the supply voltage so that the motor windings will see a smaller voltage potential.
When Ohm's law is applied to this circuit, you will see that when the voltage is slightly reduced, the current will also be reduced slightly. This means that the series motor will see less current as its speed is increased. The reduced current will mean that the motor will continue to lose torque as the motor speed increases. Since the load is moving when the armature begins to pick up speed, the application will require less torque to keep the load moving. This works to the motor's advantage by automatically reducing the motor current as soon as the load begins to move. It also allows the motor to operate with less heat buildup.
This condition can cause problems if the series motor ever loses its load. The load could be lost when a shaft breaks or if a drive pin is sheared. When this occurs, the load current is allowed to fall to a minimum, which reduces the amount of back EMF that the armature is producing. Since the armature is not producing a sufficient amount of back EMF and the load is no longer causing a drag on the shaft, the armature will begin to rotate faster and faster. It will continue to increase rotational speed until it is operating at a very high speed. When the armature is operating at high speed, the heavy armature windings will be pulled out of their slots by centrifugal force. When the windings are pulled loose, they will catch on a field winding pole piece and the motor will be severely damaged. This condition is called runaway and you can see why a DC series motor must have some type of runaway protection. A centrifugal switch can be connected to the motor to de-energize the motor starter coil if the rpm exceeds the set amount. Other sensors can be used to de-energize the circuit if the motor's current drops while full voltage is applied to the motor. The most important part to remember about a series motor is that it is difficult to control its speed by external means because its rpm is determined by the size of its load. (In some smaller series motors, the speed can be controlled by placing a rheostat in series with the supply voltage to provide some amount of change in resistance to control the voltage to the motor.)
Figure 12-11 shows the relationship between series motor speed and armature current. From this curve you can see that when current is low (at the top left), the motor speed is maximum, and when current increases, the motor speed slows down (bottom right). You can also see from this curve that a DC motor will run away if the load current is reduced to zero. (It should be noted that in larger series machines used in industry, the amount of friction losses will limit the highest speed somewhat.)
FIGURE 12-11 The relationship between series motor speed and the armature current.
Reversing the Rotation
The direction of rotation of a series motor can be changed by changing the polarity of either the armature or field winding. It is important to remember that if you simply changed the polarity of the applied voltage, you would be changing the polarity of both field and armature windings and the motor's rotation would remain the same.
FIGURE 12-12 DC series motor connected to forward and reverse motor starter.
Since only one of the windings needs to be reversed, the armature winding is typically used because its terminals are readily accessible at the brush rigging. Remember that the armature receives its current through the brushes, so that if their polarity is changed, the armature's polarity will also be changed. A reversing motor starter is used to change wiring to cause the direction of the motor's rotation to change by changing the polarity of the armature windings. Figure 12-12 shows a DC series motor that is connected to a re-versing motor starter. In this diagram the armature's terminals are marked Al and A2 and the field terminals are marked Sl and S2.
When the forward motor starter is energized, the top contact identified as F closes so the Al terminal is connected to the positive terminal of the power supply and the bottom F contact closes and connects terminals A2 and Sl. Terminal S2 is connected to the negative terminal of the power supply. When the reverse motor starter is energized, terminals Al and A2 are reversed. A2 is now connected to the positive terminal. Notice that S2 remains connected to the negative terminal of the power supply terminal. This ensures that only the armature's polarity has been changed and the motor will begin to rotate in the opposite direction.
You will also notice the normally closed (NC) set of R contacts connected in series with the forward push button, and the NC set of F contacts connected in series with the reverse push button. These contacts provide an interlock that prevents the motor from being changed from forward to reverse direction without stopping the motor. The circuit can be explained as follows: when the forward push button is depressed, current will flow from the stop push button through the NC R interlock contacts, and through the forward push button to the forward motor starter (FMS) coil. When the FMS coil is energized, it will open its NC contacts that are connected in series with the reverse push button. This means that if someone depresses the reverse push button, current could not flow to the reverse motor starter (RMS) coil. If the person depressing the push buttons wants to reverse the direction of the rotation of the motor, he or she will need to depress the stop push button first to de-energize the FMS coil, which will allow the NC F contacts to return to their NC position. You can see that when the RMS coil is energized, its NC R contacts that are connected in series with the forward push button will open and prevent the current flow to the FMS coil if the forward push button is depressed. You will see a number of other ways to control the FMS and RMS starter in later discussions and in the chapter on motor controls.
Installing and Troubleshooting
Since a series motor has only two leads brought out of the motor for installation wiring, this wiring can be accomplished rather easily. If the motor is wired to operate in only one direction, the motor terminals can be connected to a manual or magnetic starter. If the motor's rotation is required to be reversed periodically, it should be connected to a reversing starter.
Most DC series motors are used in direct-drive applications. This means that the load is connected directly to the armature's shaft. This type of load is generally used to get the most torque converted. Belt-drive applications are not recommended since a broken belt would allow the motor to run away. After the motor has been installed, a test run should be used to check it out. If any problems occur, the troubleshooting procedures should be used.
The most likely problem that will occur with the series motor is that it will develop an open in one of its windings or between the brushes and the commutator. Since the coils in a series motor are connected in series, each coil must be functioning properly or the motor will not draw any current. When this occurs, the motor cannot build a magnetic field and the armature will not turn. Another problem that is likely to occur with the motor circuit is that circuit voltage will be lost due to a blown fuse or circuit breaker. The motor will respond similarly in both of these conditions.
The best way to test a series motor is with a voltmeter. The first test should be for applied voltage at the motor terminals. Since the motor terminals are usually connected to a motor starter, the test leads can be placed on these terminals. If the meter shows that full voltage is applied, the problem will be in the motor. If it shows that no voltage is present, you should test the supply voltage and the control circuit to ensure that the motor starter is closed. If the motor starter has a visual indicator, be sure to check to see that the starter's contacts are closed. If the overloads have tripped, you can assume that they have sensed a problem with the motor or its load. When you reset the overloads, the motor will probably start again but remember to test the motor thoroughly for problems that would cause an overcurrent situation.
If the voltage test indicates that the motor has full applied voltage to its terminals but the motor is not operating, you can assume that you have an open in one of the windings or between the brushes and the armature and continue testing. Each of these sections should be disconnected from each other and voltage should be removed so that they can be tested with an ohmmeter for an open. The series field coils can be tested by putting the ohmmeter leads on terminals Sl and S2. If the meter indicates that an open exists, the motor will need to be removed and sent to be rewound or replaced. If the meter indicates that the field coil has continuity, you should continue the procedure by testing the armature.
The armature can also be tested with an ohmmeter by placing the leads on the terminals marked Al and A2. If the meter shows continuity, rotate the armature shaft slightly to look for bad spots where the commutator may have an open or the brushes may not be seated properly. If the armature test indicates that an open exists, you should continue the test by visually inspecting the brushes and commutator. You may also have an open in the armature coils. The armature must be removed from the motor frame to be tested further. When you have located the problem, you should remember that the commutator can be removed from the motor while the motor remains in place and it can be turned down on a lathe. When the commutator is replaced in the motor, new brushes can be installed and the motor will be ready for use.
It is possible that the motor will develop a problem but still run. This type of problem usually involves the motor overheating or not being able to pull its rated load. This type of problem is different from an open circuit because the motor is drawing current and trying to run. Since the motor is drawing current, you must assume that there is not an open circuit. It is still possible to have brush problems that would require the brushes to be re-seated or replaced. Other conditions that will cause the motor to overheat include loose or damaged field and armature coils. The motor will also overheat if the armature shaft bearing is in need of lubrication or is damaged. The bearing will seize on the shaft and cause the motor to build up friction and overheat.
If either of these conditions occurs, the motor may be fixed on site or be removed for extensive repairs. When the motor is restarted after repairs have been made, it is important to monitor the current usage and heat buildup. Remember that the motor will draw DC current so that an AC clamp-on ammeter will not be useful for measuring the DC current. You will need to use an ammeter that is specially designed for very large DC currents. It is also important to remember that the motor can draw very high locked-rotor current when it is starting, so the ammeter should be capable of measuring currents up to 1000 A. After the motor has completed its test run successfully, it can be put back into operation for normal duty. Anytime the motor is suspected of faulty operation, the troubleshooting procedure should be rechecked.
DC Series Motor Used as a Universal Motor
The series motor is used in a wide variety of power tools such as electric hand drills, saws, and power screwdrivers. In most of these cases, the power source for the motor is AC voltage. The DC series motor will operate on AC voltage. If the motor is used in a hand drill that needs variable-speed control, a field rheostat or other type of current control is used to control the speed of the motor. In some newer tools, the current control uses solid-state components to control the speed of the motor. You will notice that the motors used for these types of power tools have brushes and a commutator, and these are the main parts of the motor to wear out. You can use the same theory of operation provided for the DC motor to troubleshoot these types of motors.
How Does An Electric DC Motor Work? By: National Instruments
Filed Under: Specialty DC Motors -
DC Motor Overview
The electric DC motor has two basic parts: the rotating part that is called the armature, and the stationary part that includes coils of wire called the field coils. The stationary part of the electric dc motor is also called the stator.Figure 12-1 shows a picture of a typical DC motor, Fig. 12-2 shows a picture of an electric DC motor armature, and Fig. 12-3 shows a picture of a typical electric dc motor stator. From the picture in Fig. 12-2 you can see the armature is made of coils of wire wrapped around the core, and the core has an extended shaft that rotates on bearings. You should also notice that the ends of each coil of wire on the armature are terminated at one end of the armature. The termination points are called the commutator, and this is where the brushes make electrical contact to bring electrical current from the stationary part to the rotating part of the electric dc motor.
The picture in Fig. 12-3 shows the location of the coils that are mounted inside the stator. These coils will be referred to as field coils in future discussions about the electric dc motor and they may be connected in series or parallel with each other to create changes of torque in the electric dc motor. You will find the size of wire in these coils and the number of turns of wire in the coil will depend on the effect that is trying to be achieved.
FIGURE 12-1 : A typical electric DC motor.
FIGURE 12-2 : The armature (rotor) of an electric DC motor has coils of wire wrapped around its core. The ends of each coil are terminated at commutator segments located on the left end of the shaft. The brushes make contact on the commutator to provide current for the armature.
FIGURE 12-3 : The stationary part of a electric DC motor has the field coils mounted in it.
Magnetic Diagram of a DC Motor
It will be easier to understand the operation of the electric DC motor from a basic diagram that shows the magnetic interaction between the rotating armature and the stationary field's coils. Figure 12-4 shows three diagrams that explain the electric DC motor 's operation in terms of the magnetic interaction. In Fig. 12-4a you can see that a bar magnet has been mounted on a shaft so that it can spin. The field winding is one long coil of wire that has been separated into two sections. The top section is connected to the positive pole of the battery and the bottom section is connected to the negative pole of the battery. It is important to understand that the battery represents a source of voltage for this winding. In the actual industrial-type motor this voltage will come from the DC voltage source for the motor. The current flow in this direction makes the top coil the north pole of the magnet and the bottom coil the south pole of the magnet. Typical electric dc motor voltages are as follows: 24 volt dc motors, 24 v dc motor, 36 v dc motor, 12 volt dc motor, and 72 volt electric motor.
The bar magnet represents the armature and the coil of wire represents the field. The arrow shows the direction of the armature's rotation. Notice that the arrow shows the armature starting to rotate in the clockwise direction. The north pole of the field coil is repelling the north pole of the armature, and the south pole of the field coil is repelling the south pole of the armature.
FIGURE12-4 (a) : Magnetic diagram that explains the operation of an electric DC motor. The rotating magnet moves clockwise because like poles repel. (b) The rotating magnet is being attracted because the poles are unlike. (c) The rotating magnet is now shown as the armature coil, and its polarity is determined by the brushes and commutator segments.
As the armature begins to move, the north pole of the armature comes closer to the south pole of the field, and the south pole of the armature is coming closer to the north pole of the field. As the two unlike poles near each other, they begin to attract. This attraction becomes stronger until the armature's north pole moves directly in line with the field's south pole, and its south pole moves directly in line with the field's north pole (Fig. 12-4b).
When the opposite poles are at their strongest attraction, the armature will be "locked up" and will resist further attempts to continue spinning. For the armature to continue its rotation, the armature's polarity must be switched. Since the armature in this diagram is a permanent magnet, you can see that it would lock up during the first rotation and not work. If the armature is an electromagnet, its polarity can be changed by changing the direction of current flow through it. For this reason the armature must be changed to a coil (electromagnet) and a set of commutator segments must be added to provide a means of making contact between the rotating member and the stationary member. One commutator segment is provided for each terminal of the magnetic coil. Since this armature has only one coil, it will have only two terminals, so the commutator has two segments.
Since the armature is now a coil of wire, it will need DC current flowing through it to become magnetized. This presents another problem; since the armature will be rotating, the DC voltage wires cannot be connected directly to the armature coil. A stationary set of carbon brushes is used to make contact to the rotating armature. The brushes ride on the commutator segments to make contact so that current will flow through the armature coil.
In Fig. 12-4c you can see that the electric DC motor voltage is applied to the field and to the brushes. Since negative electric DC motor voltage is connected to one of the brushes, the commutator segment the negative brush rides on will also be negative. The armature's magnetic field causes the armature to begin to rotate. This time when the armature gets to the point where it becomes locked up with the magnetic field, the negative brush begins to touch the end of the armature coil that was previously positive and the positive brush begins to touch the end of the armature coil that was negative. This action switches the direction of current flow through the armature, which also switches the polarity of the armature coil's magnetic field at just the right time so that the repelling and attracting continues. The armature continues to switch its magnetic polarity twice during each rotation, which causes it to continually be attracted and repelled with the field poles.
This is a simple two-pole electric DC motor that is used primarily for instructional purposes. Since the motor has only two poles, the electric DC motor will operate rather roughly and not provide too much torque. Additional field poles and armature poles must be added to the electric DC motor for it to become useful for industry. (24 volt dc motors, 24 v dc motor, 36 v dc motor, 12 volt dc motor, and 72 volt electric motor) MSD
Basic Wiring Diagram Information By: By Nacie Carson, eHow Contributor
Filed Under: Wire Kits -
About Electric Wiring Diagrams
A golf cart battery wiring diagram is a visual representation of the golf cart electrical circuit, showing the location of the power sources, golf cart cables, connection points and signaling mechanisms. It uses a standardized symbol and notation system to represent the main pieces of a golf cart battery wiring circuit, and these conventions are internationally recognized. After the golf cart battery wiring circuit has been created, electric golf cart cable wiring diagrams are most commonly used as a troubleshooting reference if the golf cart battery wiring circuit fails.
An electric golf cart battery wiring diagram includes information on all the essential parts of a golf cart cable circuit, including resistors, capacitors and inductors. A resistor is a component that controls the amount of electricity that runs through the circuit by opposing the electric current. It is indicated on the electric wiring diagram as a zigzag line. The capacitor stores energy by holding it between two conductors and is used to charge the circuit. It is described in the electric wiring diagram as two parallel lines. Like capacitors, inductors also store energy, but store it instead in a magnetic field when electricity is moved through it. They are denoted in electric golf cart battery wiring diagrams as a straight line with several bumps in it.
Depending on the complexity of the electric golf cart battery wiringdiagram, these circuit components (Golf Car Cable) may be uniquely labeled in addition to their symbols. For instance, if there are two capacitors used in the circuit, they will be listed on the wiring diagram as C1 and C2, short hand for Capacitor 1 and Capacitor 2. The numbering of unique components is based on their location in relevance to the main power source, which is considered the starting point of the circuit. The parts of the circuit are linked together in the diagram through connection indicators, also known as golf cart cables. Golf cart cables are indicated on the diagram as simple straight lines.
The drawing of an electric golf cart battery wiringdiagram is one of the first steps in the creation of the actual circuit. After the golf cart battery wiring diagram is complete, it is used to place the various components.
An electric golf cart battery wiringdiagram does not show the physical orientation of the components, merely how they connect together. Diagrams that show the actual location of all the golf cart battery wiringparts, like a golf cart cable, are called layout design or physical designs.
Reading electric golf cart battery wiringdiagrams can at times be a challenge. Diagrams are meant to follow the flow of power from energy source through the golf cart cables to output mechanism, however when the circuits are very complex this is not always easy. There is no universal standard as to how they should be organized on a page, though commonly they are drawn with intent to be read from left to right and top to bottom. Larger wiring diagrams, for skyscrapers and sizable compounds, do not fit on a single page and can require cross referencing among many pages to follow the electrical flow.